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Parashat Bamidbar

General Overview: This week's reading, Bamidbar, begins the Book of Numbers, the fourth of the Five Books of Moses. This book of the Torah opens on the first of Iyar, one month after the inauguration of the Tabernacle, and several weeks before the Jews will depart from Mount Sinai and begin their journey to the Holy Land. In this week's portion the Israelites and the Tribe of Levi are counted separately. G‑d instructs the Israelites on how to camp in the desert, surrounding the Tabernacle. The Levites are informed the procedure for dismantling the Tabernacle before traveling.

First Aliyah: G‑d commands Moses to count all Jewish men of military age. G‑d names one member of each tribe as the nasi, leader, of the tribe. Each nasi will assist Moses and Aaron in taking a census of his tribe. An additional objective of this census was to establish the tribal lineage of every Jew.

Second Aliyah: And now the census results. After giving us the numbers for each tribe, the Torah gives us the grand total: 603,550. This number, however, does not include the Levites. Moses was commanded by G‑d not to include the holy tribe in the general census. Instead, the Levites are assigned the following holy tasks: dismantling, carrying, and re-erecting the Tabernacle whenever the Jews traveled, and camping around the Sanctuary, keeping guard over it and its vessels.

Third Aliyah: The Jews are instructed regarding their camping formation. The Tabernacle was at the center of the encampment, surrounded by the "Flag of Judah" — which included the Tribes of Judah, Issachar and Zebulun — to the east; the "Flag of Reuben" — Reuben, Shimon, Gad — to the south; the "Flag of Ephraim" — Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin — to the west; and the "Flag of Dan" — Dan, Asher, Naftali — to the north.

Fourth Aliyah: The Levites are appointed to serve in the Tabernacle, guard its vessels and assist the priests with their Tabernacle duties. This honor originally belonged to the Israelite firstborns, who were "acquired" by G‑d when He spared them during the Plague of the Firstborn. This privilege was taken away from them when they participated in the sin of the Golden Calf — and given to the Levites.

Fifth Aliyah: Moses is now commanded to separately count all Levite males from the age of one month and older. The three Levite families are counted, and a leader is appointed for each of the families. The total of all (non-firstborn) Levites eligible for this census: 22,000. The family of Gershon camped due west of the Tabernacle, and was put in charge of transporting the tapestries and curtains of the Tabernacle and their accessories. The Kehot family camped directly south of the Tabernacle, and was in charge of transporting all the holy vessels. The Merari family camped to the north of the Tabernacle, and they were in charge of carrying the Tabernacle beams, panels, and sockets. Moses, Aaron, and their immediate families camped to the east of the Tabernacle.

Sixth Aliyah: G‑d then tells Moses to count all the firstborn Israelites — because the holiness of each Israelite firstborn was now to be "transferred" to a Levite. The census revealed that there were 273 more firstborn than Levites. Each of these "extra" firstborns (as determined by a lottery) gave five shekel to the priests, and was thus "redeemed."

Seventh Aliyah: Moses is commanded to take a census of the Levites of the family of Kehot, but only those eligible to transport the Tabernacle and its vessels — those between the ages of thirty and fifty. The results of this census are given in next week's reading. This section then describes the duties of the Kehot family. When the Tabernacle was to be dismantled, the priests would cover all the holy vessels with specially designated sacks. The Kehot family would then take the covered vessels and carry them to their destination.

Parashat Behukotai


General Overview: This week's reading, Bechukotai, contains a vivid description of the rewards for observing G‑d's commandments and the series of punishments that will befall us if we choose to disregard them. The Torah then discusses different types of gifts given to the Temple, and the animal tithe.

First Aliyah: We are promised incredible blessing if we diligently study Torah and observe the mitzvot. The blessings include plentiful food — "You will be threshing wheat until the grape-harvest, and the grape-harvest will keep you busy until the sowing season!" — timely rain, and security.

Second Aliyah: More blessings: Peace in the land, the elimination of wild animals from the land, and incredible military success — "Five of you will chase away a hundred, and a hundred of you will chase away ten thousand!"

Third Aliyah: And even more blessings: An overabundance of crops and G‑d's presence will be revealed in our midst. This section then describes the severe, terrifying punishments which will be the Jews' lot if they reject G‑d's mitzvot. The punishments include disease, famine, enemy occupation of the land, exile, and desolation of the land. The non-observance of the Sabbatical year is singled out as the reason for the desolation of the land. The aliyah concludes with G‑d's promise never to utterly forsake us even when we are exiled in the lands of our enemies.

Fourth Aliyah: This section discusses various endowments pledged to the Temple coffers. A person can pledge the worth of an individual, in which case the Torah prescribes how much the person must pay — depending on the gender and age of the individual who is being "assessed." An animal which is pledged to the Temple must be offered on the altar if it is fit for sacrifice — otherwise it must be "redeemed" for its value. If the owner chooses to redeem it, he must add one fifth of its value to the redemption price. The same rule applies to a house which is pledged to the Temple.

Fifth Aliyah: This section discusses the endowment of land to the temple. If it is land which was part of the family lot (given to his ancestors when Israel was divided amongst the Tribes), then the redemption price is a fixed amount, depending on its harvest yield. If the owner chooses not to redeem it, it may be redeemed by any other individual. In this event, or if the land remains un-redeemed, the land becomes the property of the priests during the next Jubilee year.

Sixth Aliyah: Land which was purchased and then consecrated by the buyer can also be redeemed, but it reverts to its original owner when the Jubilee arrives. All firstborn livestock are sacrificed in the Temple, and their flesh is consumed by the priests. A person also has the option of dedicating and consecrating any of his belongings specifically for the use of the priests.

Seventh Aliyah: The "Second Tithe," which must be consumed by its owners in Jerusalem, is briefly mentioned — as well as the rules for redeeming this tithe if it is too burdensome to transport to Jerusalem. Also discussed is the animal tithe — every tenth animal is offered as a sacrifice, and the meat consumed by its owners. With this we conclude the Book of Leviticus.

Parashat Behar


General Overview: This week's reading, Behar, speaks about the Sabbatical and Jubileeyears, laws regulating commerce and the redemption of slaves.

First Aliyah: G‑d commands Moses regarding the Sh'mitah (Sabbatical) and Jubilee years. Every seventh year is a Sabbatical year, when it is forbidden to work the land (in the Land of Israel). After seven sets of seven years a Jubilee year is proclaimed by a blast of the shofar (ram's horn) on that year's Yom Kippur. During Jubilee years all the laws of the Sabbatical year apply, and, in addition to the Sabbatical laws, all slaves are set free and all lands revert to their original owners.

Second Aliyah: We are commanded to conduct business ethically. Since, as aforementioned, all land reverts to their original owners during the Jubilee year, the amount of years remaining until the next Jubilee year must be taken into account whenever a real-estate sale is conducted, and the price set accordingly. The end of this section enjoins us not to verbally harass or intentionally mislead our fellows.

Third Aliyah: This section addresses an obvious concern: "What will we eat in the seventh year if we do not sow our gather our grain?!" G‑d reassures us that He will bless the sixth year's harvest, and it will produce enough to provide for three years — until the crop of the eighth year is ready to eat! The Torah then gives the rationale for the prohibition against selling land for perpetuity (instead, land can only be "leased" until the Jubilee year) — "Because the Land belongs to Me; you are strangers and residents with Me."

Fourth Aliyah: A person who sells real-estate has the option of "redeeming" the land from the purchaser — provided that two years have passed from the date of purchase. The total price for which the land was sold is divided by the amount of years from the time of purchase until the next Jubilee year (when the land would anyhow return to the owner) in order to determine the price per year, and the original owner refunds the buyer however much money he had paid for the remaining years. A relative of the seller may also redeem the land on behalf of his family member.

Fifth Aliyah: All the laws mentioned above apply to fields and homes in un-walled cities. Homes in walled cities, on the other hand, may be redeemed for their full value for up to one year after the sale. If not redeemed within the year, they become the permanent property of the buyer, and they are not released by the Jubilee. Another exception to these rules is the property allotted to the Levites. The homes and fields in the forty-eight Levitecities are always redeemable — from the moment of purchase until the Jubilee year, when in any event they revert to their owners. We are then commanded to assist our brethren by coming to their aid before they become financially ruined and dependent on the help of others. We are also forbidden to charge interest on a loan to a fellow Jew.

Sixth Aliyah: We are commanded to treat Jewish slaves respectfully, never subjecting them to demeaning labor.

Seventh Aliyah: The Torah prescribes the redemption process for a Jew sold into slavery to a non-Jewish master. The same formula described above (Fourth Aliyah) is employed. Either the slave himself or one of his relatives refunds the master the amount of money that corresponds to the years remaining until the Jubilee — when the slave will go free even if he had not been "redeemed." The section concludes with a brief mention of the prohibition against idolatry, and the requirement that we observe the Shabbat and revere the Holy Sanctuary.

Parashat Emor


General Overview: This week's reading, Emor, discusses the laws which pertain toKohanim (priests), and various laws which relate to sacrifices. These are followed by a lengthy discussion of the festivals. The portion concludes with the story of a blasphemer who was put to death.

First Aliyah: The aliyah discusses the Kohen's obligation to maintain a high level of ritual purity, and the women he may marry. An ordinary Kohen is prohibited to come in contact with a human corpse — except to attend the funerals of his next of kin — and may not marry a divorcee as well as some other women. The High Priest is not permitted to attend even family funerals, and is required to marry a virgin.

Second Aliyah: This section discusses bodily blemishes and ritual impurities which disqualify a Kohen from performing the Temple priestly duties. The aliyah then lays down the rules regarding who in the Kohen's household may eat terumah, the tithe from produce given to the Kohanim.

Third Aliyah: Blemished animals are disqualified for sacrificial use. This aliyah also forbids the castration of animals, sacrificing animals before they are eight days old, and slaughtering a mother animal and her child on the same day. The aliyah concludes with the mitzvah of kiddush Hashem, sanctifying G‑d's Name by giving one's life rather than transgressing certain cardinal sins.

Fourth Aliyah: This section begins a lengthy discussion about the Jewish holidays. After making brief mention of the Shabbat, the Torah talks about the holiday of Passover and the mitzvah of eating matzah. On the second day of this holiday, an "omer" barley offering is brought in the Temple. This is followed by a seven-week counting period that culminates with the holiday of Shavuot. After discussing the Shavuot Temple service, the Torah briefly interrupts the holiday discussion to mention the obligation, when harvesting fields, to leave certain gifts for the poor.

Fifth Aliyah: The High Holidays are discussed. We are commanded to hear the shofar(ram's horn) on Rosh Hashanah, and to "afflict" ourselves on Yom Kippur.

Sixth Aliyah: The autumn holiday of Sukkot is now introduced. During this seven-day holiday we are commanded to sit in outdoor booths, take the Four Species (citron, palm branch, myrtles, and willows), and rejoice before G‑d. The final holiday is Shemini Atzeret, a one-day holiday which immediately follows Sukkot.

Seventh Aliyah: We are instructed to use the purest of olive oils for the daily kindling of the Temple menorah, and to arrange twelve "showbreads" on the Temple Table every Shabbat. The Torah then tells the story of a Jewish man who was put to death for blaspheming G‑d. The portion concludes with the penalties for committing murder, property damages, and personal injury.

Parshat Kedoshim


General Overview: Dozens of commandments are discussed in this week's reading, Kedoshim. Among them: various mandatory gifts for the poor, love for every Jew, prohibition against sorcery, honesty in business dealings, and sexual morality.

First Aliyah: G‑d commands the Jewish people to be holy. This section then briefly discuses several laws: revering parents; observing the Shabbat; prohibitions against idolatry; the obligation to burn "leftover" sacrificial flesh; the obligation to leave certain parts of one's harvest for the poor; not to lie, cheat, withhold wages, swear falsely, curse or mislead another.

Second Aliyah: More mitzvot: Not to pervert justice, gossip, be indifferent to a fellow's predicament, hate a fellow Jew, bear grudges, or take revenge. To reprimand a sinner, and to love every Jew. The following statutes are also given here: not to sow a field with two kinds of seed, wear a garment made of a mixture of wool and linen (shatnez), or crossbreed animals. The section concludes with the laws of one who commits adultery with a half-free maidservant.

Third Aliyah: We are introduced to the laws of "orlah," the prohibition against eating the fruit of a new sapling for the first three years, and the obligation to sanctify the fruit of the fourth year. We are enjoined not to engage in witchcraft or prostitution, or tattoo our bodies. Men are instructed not to destroy the hair at the edges of their scalp or the corners of their beards. We are commanded to observe the Shabbat; respect G‑d's sanctuary, Torahscholars and the elderly.

Fourth Aliyah: We are commanded to love converts. We are also enjoined to be truthful in business dealing by maintaining honest weights and measures.

Fifth Aliyah: The Torah prescribes capital punishment for one who worships Molech; a form of idolatry which required human sacrifices. The Torah also describes the punishment which will befall the nation if they neglect to punish Molech worshippers.

Sixth Aliyah: The Torah sets the punishments for individuals who curse their parents and those who engage in prohibited sexual relations.

Seventh Aliyah: We are instructed not to follow the customs and traditions of the heathens, and to be meticulous about eating only kosher foods. The Torah portion ends on the same note as it started — an enjoinder that we be holy.

Acharei Aliyah Summary


General Overview: This week's reading, Acharei, begins with a detailed description of the service of the High Priest on Yom Kippur. The Torah then discusses prohibitions against offering sacrifices outside the Temple, consuming blood, and incestuous, adulterous, or other forbidden relationships.

First Aliyah: The High Priest is instructed to only enter the Holy of Holies chamber of the sanctuary once a year, on Yom Kippur; and even on this holiest day of the year, the entry into the Temple's inner sanctum must be accompanied by a special service and specific offerings which are detailed in this reading. The High Priest was only permitted to enter amidst a cloud of burning incense. Also, special white garments were worn by the High Priest on this day. While offering the day's sacrifices, the High Priest would "confess" on behalf of the entire nation, attaining atonement for the past year's sins.

Second Aliyah: This section continues the description of the special Yom Kippur service. The procedure of the "scapegoat" ceremony is described in this aliyah.

Third Aliyah: After concluding the order of the Yom Kippur service in the Temple, the Torah instructs us to observe Yom Kippur as a Day of Atonement when we must abstain from work and "afflict" ourselves.

Fourth Aliyah: The Jews are forbidden to offer sacrifices anywhere other than the Tabernacle or Temple.

Fifth Aliyah: We are enjoined not to consume blood. When slaughtering fowl or undomesticated animals, we are commanded to cover their blood with earth. The Jews are admonished not to follow the depraved ways of the Egyptians and Canaanites.

Sixth Aliyah: Continuing on the above theme, the Torah provides a list of prohibited sexual relationships. The list includes adultery, cohabiting with a menstruating woman, and forbidden close relatives.

Seventh Aliyah: The prohibitions against homosexuality and bestiality are mentioned. The Jews are then warned that engaging in these forbidden relationships will result in their expulsion from the Land of Israel — a holy land which cannot tolerate immoral behavior.

Parashat Metzora

Metzora Aliyah Summary

General Overview: This week's reading, Metzora, discusses the purification process for one who contracts "tzara'at" (skin maladies which are contracted as a result of engaging in forbidden gossip), and the symptoms and laws of "house tzara'at," indicated by certain stone discolorations. Following is a discussion of various ritual impurities, including the laws of the menstruating woman.

First Aliyah: The Torah reading begins with a description of the purification procedure for a person who contracted tzara'at. After the priest determines that the tzara'at has been healed, a ceremony involving two birds, a cedar plank, a scarlet thread and water from a live stream, is used for the initial stage of the purification. The individual also shaves his entire body. After a seven day wait, the person shaves again, and brings three animals and an oil offering to the Temple.

Second Aliyah: The priest processes the offerings in the manner prescribed in this section. With this the purification process is completed.

Third Aliyah: If the individual suffering from tzara'at cannot afford the above sacrifices, two birds can be substituted for two of the animals. This section describes the slightly different purification process reserved for the impoverished person.

Fourth Aliyah: Homes, too, can be afflicted with tzara'at. If stones on a home become discolored — acquiring a strong red or green pigment — a priest is summoned. If indeed the discoloration seems to be tzara'at, the priest quarantines the home for up to three weeks. Depending on the spread of the discoloration, the home is either declared to be pure, or the specific stones are removed from the house, or, in the most extreme situations, the house is demolished. The Torah then describes the purification process for such a home — which is very similar to the initial stage of the purification of the human afflicted with tzara'at (described in the First Aliyah).

Fifth Aliyah: After concluding the subject of tzara'at, the Torah discusses the ritual impurity of a man who issues a sickly and unnatural seminal discharge, as well as the method by which this person attains purity when the condition passes.

Sixth Aliyah: This section discusses the ritual impurity contracted by a man who issues a (normal) seminal discharge, the ritual impurity of a menstruating woman, and of a man who cohabits with her. All such people must immerse in a mikvah (ritual pool) in order to be purified.

Seventh Aliyah: Under certain circumstances a menstruating woman was required to bring to the Temple two bird offerings in order to attain purity. These sacrifices are described in this section.

Parashat Tazriya

General Overview: The bulk of this week's portion, Tazria, discusses various forms of tzara'at, skin maladies which are contracted as a result of engaging in forbidden gossip. Also discussed are certain garment discolorations which constitute "clothing tzara'at."

First Aliyah: The Jewish people are instructed regarding the ritual impurity contracted by a woman who gives birth. The timeframe of this period of impurity differs depending whether the child is a boy or girl. At the conclusion of this period, the woman immerses in a mikvahand is required to bring certain offerings in the Temple. Incidentally, the Torah mentions the obligation to circumcise a male child on the eighth day of his life. The Torah then begins discussing the laws of tzara'at, a skin discoloration — often inaccurately translated as "leprosy" — which renders a person ritually impure. This aliyah discusses various forms of white skin discolorations. A person who has the symptoms of tzara'at must be seen by a priest. If the discoloration is deemed "suspicious," the priest will immediately declare the individual impure or quarantine him for up to two weeks.

Second Aliyah: At the conclusion of the quarantine period, the priest either declares the individual pure or impure. The Torah then discusses what is done in the event that the tzara'at spreads after the individual was declared pure, or if there is raw skin within the tzara'at, or if the tzara'at has spread over the entire body.

Third Aliyah: We learn the laws of tzara'at which appears following an inflammation on the skin.

Fourth Aliyah: We learn the laws of tzara'at which appears following a burn to the skin.

Fifth Aliyah: In this aliyah we discover that tzara'at can also affect the areas on the body covered by hair. The symptoms and laws of such a tzara'at are quite different than standard tzara'at. This section concludes with the laws of a person afflicted by multiple dull white areas on his skin.

Sixth Aliyah: This section discusses tzara'at which appears on a bald spot, as well a white discoloration streaked with red, which can appear anywhere on the body. Also discussed is the procedure followed by an individual who is afflicted with tzara'at, the main requirement being that he must remain outside the city until his condition clears up. The Torah then discusses "clothing tzara'at," a green or red discoloration which can affect certain types of materials. The garment is shown to a priest who quarantines it for up to two weeks.

Seventh Aliyah: At the conclusion of the quarantine period, depending on the circumstances the garment is either declared pure, or completely burnt, or only the part which was discolored is torn out and burnt.

Parashat Shemini

General Overview: This week's reading, Shemini, is a continuation of the previous week's reading, Tzav, where we learned about the Tabernacle's seven-day inaugural ceremony. This week's reading opens on the eighth day, when G‑d's presence descends upon the Tabernacle. On that day, Aaron's sons Nadab and Avihu die when offering an uncalled-for incense sacrifice. The portion concludes with a discussion about the laws of Kosher and ritual purity.

First Aliyah: Moses gathers all the Jews to the Tabernacle to witness the Divine presence descending upon the Sanctuary on that day. Aaron offers various sacrifices in preparation for this revelation.

Second Aliyah: After concluding the offering of all the sacrifices, Aaron blesses the people with the priestly blessing. Moses and Aaron bless the Jewish people that G‑d's presence dwell in their handiwork, and, indeed, the Divine presence visibly descends upon the Tabernacle.

Third Aliyah: At this point a heavenly fire descends and consumes the offerings on the altar. Aaron's eldest two sons, Nadab and Avihu, bring an unauthorized incense offering and a heavenly fire consumes them. Moses orders the removal of their bodies from the Tabernacle, and instructs Aaron and his remaining two sons not to observe the traditional laws of mourning, considering that they had to continue serving in the Sanctuary on behalf of the Jewish nation. The priests are instructed not to imbibe wine before performing Temple service.

Fourth Aliyah: Moses addresses Aaron and his sons, instructing them regarding the consumption of that day's offerings — despite the deaths of their next of kin.

Fifth Aliyah: Moses becomes aware that one of the sin offerings had been burnt, rather than eaten. When he expresses his displeasure, Aaron explains his reasoning for ordering the burning of that particular offering, and Moses humbly accepts Aaron's explanation.

Sixth Aliyah: G‑d gives the commandments of Kosher, explaining how to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher animals, fish, and birds. Kosher animals must chew their cud and have cloven feet. The Torah lists four animals that have only one of these attributes, but not both, and are therefore non-kosher. Kosher fish must have fins and scales. The Torah then gives a list of species of non-kosher birds, and species of kosher locust. The Torah then discusses the ritual impurity caused by coming in contact with the carcass of a non-kosher animal, as well as certain species of rodents and amphibian creatures.

Seventh Aliyah: We learn of the possibility of foods and utensils contracting ritual impurity if they come in contact with any of the aforementioned impurities. The Torah then mentions the impurity contracted through coming in contact with the carcass of a kosher animal which was not ritually slaughtered. We are commanded not to consume any insects or reptiles. The reading closes with an exhortation that we remain holy by abstaining from eating all forbidden foods.

Parshat Tzav

General Overview: This week's Torah reading, Tzav, continues describing the various sacrifices offered in the Tabernacle and Temple — a topic started in last week's reading. This is followed by an account of the seven-day inaugural of the Tabernacle.

First Aliyah: The Torah describes the mandatory daily removal of ashes from the altar. This was the first order of the day in the Temple service. The Torah then repeats the laws of the meal offerings described in last week's reading, adding several important details.

Second Aliyah: This section discusses the priestly meal offering, brought by the High Priesttwice daily, and by every priest on the day he is first inducted into Temple service. The laws of the Sin Offering and Guilt Offering, also discussed in last week's reading, are also repeated with added details. An important principle discussed is a vessel's absorption of sacrificial meats cooked therein, and the possibility of purging (certain types of) vessels of the vestiges it absorbed — a concept which is very germane in the laws of kosher. This section concludes with a discussion regarding various gratuities the priests were entitled to take from the different offerings and sacrifices.

Third Aliyah: The Torah now discusses the Thanksgiving Offering, brought by an individual who survived a perilous circumstance. We then learn about various grounds for the invalidation of a sacrifice, such as impurity or improper thoughts on the part of the priest performing the service. We are then commanded not to consume blood or any of the fats offered on the altar. The prohibition against eating these fats applies to all domesticated animals. The section wraps up with the portions of meat the priest is given from the Peace Offering. With this we conclude the laws of sacrifices.

Fourth Aliyah: We now read about the induction of the priests and the inauguration of the Tabernacle. In the presence of all the Jews, Moses dressed Aaron and his sons in the priestly vestments and anointed them, along with the Tabernacle and its vessels, with the holy anointing oil.

Fifth Aliyah: The priestly induction continues with Moses sacrificing a bullock and a ram as burnt offerings.

Sixth Aliyah: Moses then sacrifices a second ram, and their fats are burnt on the altar, along with some breads.

Seventh Aliyah: Completing the process of initiating the priests, Moses anoints them with the holy anointing oil which is mixed with some of the blood from the altar. Moses instructs the priests regarding the consumption of the sacrificial meats, and tells them that this entire process will be repeated for the following six days, and during this seven day inaugural they are not to leave the confines of the Tabernacle.

Parashat Vayikra

General Overview: This week's Torah reading, Vayikra, begins the third book of the Torah, Leviticus. Last week we completed the reading of the book of Exodus, which concluded with a description of the construction of the Tabernacle. This week's portion will provide a description of the various sacrifices – animal, fowl, and meal-offerings – offered by the priests in this newly constructed Sanctuary.

First Aliyah: G‑d calls out to Moses from the Tabernacle and teaches him the laws of the elective burnt offering, the Olah sacrifice. This aliyah discusses the laws of the cattle, sheep, or goat Olah.

Second Aliyah: G‑d then teaches Moses the laws of the fowl Olah. This aliyah then continues with a description of three types of voluntary meal offerings: unbaked flour, baked loaves, and the shallow-fried meal offering. All voluntary meal offerings also contained olive oil and frankincense.

Third Aliyah: The Torah describes the last type of voluntary meal offerings — the deep-fried meal offering — and the mandatory barley offering, the Omer offering, brought on the second day of Passover. G‑d instructs the Jews to add salt to every animal sacrifice or meal offering, a symbol of our everlasting "salt covenant" with G‑d. We are also commanded not to include any leavened items or anything which contains honey in any Temple offering (there are two exclusions to the leaven prohibition).

Fourth Aliyah: The "Peace Offering," the Shelamim sacrifice, is described in this Aliyah. The Shelamim — which could be brought from cattle, sheep, or goats — was shared by the altar, which consumed some of the animal's fats, the Kohanim, and the donors of the sacrifice who were given the bulk of the meat. The aliyah ends with the prohibitions against consuming blood and the specific fats which were offered on the altar. These prohibitions apply to all animals, even those not offered in the Temple.

Fifth Aliyah: We now begin learning about the "Sin Offering," the Chatat sacrifice, brought by an individual who is guilty of inadvertently transgressing a sin. This section discusses the unique Chatat sacrifices brought by a High Priest who sins, by the Sanhedrin (Jewish Supreme Court) who issue an erroneous ruling which causes the populace to sin, and a monarch who sins.

Sixth Aliyah: The Torah discusses the fourth and final type of Chatat, that of a common person who sins. Also discussed is the Korban Oleh Viyored, a "vacillating" Sin Offering, brought by an individual guilty of certain specific sins. The Korban Oleh Viyored depended on the financial position of the transgressor — a wealthy person brought a sheep or goat, a person of lesser means brought two birds, and a pauper brought a meal offering.

Seventh Aliyah: This section concludes the laws of the Korban Oleh Viyored. We then move on to the last sacrifice discussed in this week's Torah reading, the "Guilt Offering," the Asham Sacrifice. Three types of Asham Sacrifices are discussed: a) an Asham brought by one who inadvertently misappropriates Temple property. b) An Asham brought by one who falsely swears regarding money owed to another. (In addition to bringing a sacrifice, these two individuals must repay the principal amount, and pay a punitive fine equal to one fourth of the principal.) c) An Asham brought by a person who is uncertain whether he violated a Torah prohibition.

Parashat Pekudei


General Overview: This portion, Pekudei, describes the manufacture of the vestments of the priests and high priests — which were already described in the portion of Tetzaveh, where G‑d instructs Moses how these garments are to be assembled. The Tabernacle is erected, and G‑d's presence dwells therein.

First Aliyah: This aliyah gives an exact accounting of the amounts of gold, silver and copper donated for the construction of the Tabernacle, as well as the vessels and building materials constructed with these supplies.

Second Aliyah: The high priest's ephod — a reversed apron which covered the back — and its precious-stone-studded shoulder straps were made. The High Priest's Choshen Mishpat ("Breastplate of Judgment") was assembled. It contained four rows of precious stones, each row containing three stones. Artisans engraved the names of the Twelve Tribes of Israel upon these twelve stones. The Choshen Misphat was then secured by straps which connected it to the ephod.

Third Aliyah: The rest of the priestly garments were completed: The high priest's me'il (blue robe adorned with golden bells and cloth "pomegranates") and tzitz (a golden band worn on the forehead, which was engraved with the words "Holy to G‑d"); and the four garments worn by both the high priest and the regular priests: tunics, turbans, sashes and pants. With this, the construction of the Tabernacle and all its vessels and accouterment were finished.

Fourth Aliyah: The craftspeople brought their finished products to Moses. Moses saw that all the work had been done exactly to G‑d's specifications, and he blessed the workers.

Fifth Aliyah: G‑d instructed Moses to erect the Tabernacle on the first of Nissan. G‑d also instructed Moses to place all the Tabernacle's vessels in their proper places, and to anoint all of the items with the anointing oil, thus sanctifying them. Moses is also directed to dress Aaron and his sons in the priestly garments, and to anoint them, too.

Sixth Aliyah: This aliyah describes Moses' fulfillment of the above-mentioned directives.

Seventh Aliyah: Moses completed the proper placement of the Tabernacle vessels. When Moses finished this task a Cloud of Glory and the Divine Presence filled the Tabernacle. This cloud also served as the Jews' guide throughout their desert sojourn: when the cloud lifted, the people would travel, following the cloud until it rested, where they would set up camp until the cloud would lift again.

Parashat Vayekel

General Overview: In this week's portion, Vayakel, Moshe gathers the Jews and relays to them all the details regarding the construction of the Mishkan and its vessels. The actual construction is also described. This parasha repeats many of the details described in the portion of Terumah, wherein G‑d instructed Moses how the Mishkan and its vessels were to be constructed.

First Aliyah: On the day after Moshe descended from Har Sinai with the Second Tablets, after successfully securing atonement for the sin of the Golden Calf, he gathered all the Jewish people. The primary purpose of this assembly was to inform the Jews of G‑d's desire for a Sanctuary to be constructed. He began, however, with a brief reminder regarding the observance of the Shabbat. This was followed by a description of the materials needed to construct the Mishkan, and a list of the kelim, Miskhan parts, and priestly garments (bigdei Kehuna) which were to be produced.

Second Aliyah: The men and women came forward and generously donated all the materials which Moshe enumerated.

Third Aliyah: Moshe announces G‑d's choice of Bezalel and Oholiab to serve as foremen of the Mishkan construction project, and he transfers to them all the donated materials. The people, however, continued donating generously, until the craftspeople report to Moshe that they have more than enough materials to complete their task, causing Moshe to issue a proclamation requesting everyone to cease donating materials.

Fourth Aliyah: The craftspeople began their work. In this aliyah, the tapestries which covered the Mishkan were assembled.

Fifth Aliyah: The construction continued. In this aliyah, the craftspeople construct the Mishkan wall panels, their sockets, the curtains which covered the entrance to the sanctuary and which separated the Holy of Holies from the rest of the sanctuary, the Ark, and the Showbread Table.

Sixth Aliyah: This aliyah describes the construction of the menorah (candelabra) and the Incense Altar. The anointing oil and the incense are also prepared.

Seventh Aliyah: The Mishkan’s construction is capped off with the construction of the Outer Altar, the copper wash stand, the mesh curtains which surrounded the Mishkan’s courtyard, and the beams and hooks which anchored them.

Parashat Ki Tisa

General Overview: The portion discusses the census of B’nai Israel, the washbasin of the Mishkan, the anointing oils for the priests and kings, the incense offering, and Shabbat. The Torah then relates the story of the Golden Calf, G‑d's anger at the Jewish nation, Moshe successfully arguing for G-d’s forgiveness for the sin, the subsequent breaking of the tablets, and the giving of the second tablets.

First Aliyah: G‑d commands Moshe to take a census of the Jewish adult male population by collecting an atonement offering of half a silver shekel from each individual. The collected silver was melted down and was made into sockets for the beams of the Mishkan. G‑d instructs Moshe to make a copper washstand for the Mishkan. The priests would use this laver to wash their hands and feet before their service. G‑d tells Moshe the recipe for making holy "anointing oil." This oil, which was prepared with various aromatic herbs and fine spices, was used to anoint and sanctify the Mishkan, its vessels, and Aaron and his sons. The remainder of the oil was put aside and was used to anoint kings and high priests of future generations. G‑d also gives Moshe the formula for the incense which was offered twice-daily in the Mishkan. The duplication of the anointing oil or incense for personal use is prohibited. G‑d imbues Bezalel with wisdom and appoints him to be the chief craftsman of the Mishkan and its contents. G‑d appoints Oholiab as his assistant. This lengthy aliyah concludes with G‑d telling the Jewish people to observe the Shabbat, the eternal sign between Him and B’nai Israel.

Second Aliyah: After G‑d revealed Himself to the entire nation at Mount Sinai and told them the Ten Commandments, Moshe ascended the mountain where he remained for forty days. There he was to study the Torah and receive the Tablets. The Jews miscalculate when Moshe is supposed to return, and when he doesn't appear on the day when they anticipate him, they grow impatient and demand of Aaron to make for them a new god. Aaron cooperates, all along intending to postpone and buy time until Moshe’s return, but despite his efforts, a Golden Calf emerges from the flames. The festivities and sacrifices start early the next morning. Moshe pleads with an incensed G‑d to forgive the Jews' sin. G‑d acquiesces and relents from His plan to annihilate the Jews. Moses comes down with the Tablets, sees the idolatrous revelry, and breaks the Tablets. Moshe enlists the Tribe of Levi to punish the primary offenders. Three thousand idol worshippers are executed on that day. Moshe ascends Mount Sinai again, in an attempt to gain complete atonement for the sin. G‑d tells Moshe to lead the Jews towards the Promised Land, but insists that He won't be leading them personally; instead, an angel will be dispatched to lead them. Seeing G‑d's displeasure with the Jews, Moshe takes his own tent and pitches it outside B’nai Israel’s encampment. This tent becomes the center of study and spirituality until the Mishkan is inaugurated.

Third Aliyah: Moshe asks G‑d to reconsider the matter of the angel leading them. G‑d reconsiders and agrees to lead them Himself again. Moshe then requests that G‑d's presence never manifest itself on any other nation other than the Jews.

Fourth Aliyah: G‑d's agrees to Moshe’s request that His presence only dwell amongst the Jews. Moshe requests to be shown G‑d's glory. G‑d agrees but informs Moshe that he will only be shown G‑d's "back," not G‑d's "face."

Fifth Aliyah: G‑d tells Moshe to carve new tablets upon which G‑d will engrave the Ten Commandments. Moshe takes the new tablets up to Mt. Sinai, where G‑d reveals His glory to Moshe while proclaiming His Thirteen Attributes of Mercy.

Sixth Aliyah: G‑d seals a covenant with Moshe, assuring him again that His presence will only dwell with the Jews. G‑d informs the Jewish people that He will drive the Canaanites from before them. He instructs them to destroy all vestiges of idolatry from the land, and to refrain from making any covenants with its current inhabitants. The Jews are then commanded not to make molten gods, to observe the three festivals, not to eat chametz on Pesach, to sanctify male firstborn humans and cattle, and not to cook meat together with milk.

Seventh Aliyah: Moshe descends Mount Sinai with the second tablets, and unbeknownst to him beams of light were projecting off his face. Aaron and the people are originally afraid of him. Moshe teaches the people the Torah he studied on the mountain. Moshe wears a veil on his face from that time on but removes it when speaking to G‑d and when repeating G‑d's words to the people.

Parashat Tetzaveh

General Overview: In last week's Torah reading, Terumah, we read the details of the construction of the Mishkan, the sanctuary in the desert. This week's Parshah, Tetzaveh, we discover the special garments worn by the priests and high priest when serving in the Mishkan. Following that, we read G‑d's instructions to Moshe regarding the seven-day inauguration for the Mishkan. The portion concludes with a description of one of the vessels of the Mishkan—the Incense Altar.

First Aliyah: G‑d commands the Jews to use the purest of olive oils for the daily kindling of the Menorah. Moshe is instructed to consecrate Aaron and his sons by dressing them in special priestly garments. The Torah describes the making of the High Priest's ephod — a reversed apron which covered the back — and its precious-stone-studded shoulder straps.

Second Aliyah: We now read about the High Priest's Choshen Mishpat ("Breastplate of Judgment"). It contained four rows of precious stones, each row containing three stones. Artisans engraved the names of the Twelve Tribes of Israel upon these twelve stones. This cloth breastplate contained a fold wherein the Urim v'Tumim, a parchment on which was written G‑d's Name, was inserted. The Choshen Misphat was then secured by straps which connected it to the ephod.

Third Aliyah: This aliyah describes the last two of the garments which were exclusive to the High Priest: the me'il and the tzitz. The me'il was a blue robe which was adorned with golden bells and cloth "pomegranates." The tzitz was a golden band worn on the forehead, which was engraved with the words "Holy to G‑d." The Torah then describes the four garments worn by both the High Priest and the regular priests: tunics, turbans, sashes and pants.

Fourth Aliyah: This aliyah prescribes the procedure for consecrating Aaron and his sons as priests. Aaron and his sons were brought to the door of the sanctuary, they immersed in a mikvah (ritual pool), and were dressed in the priestly garments. Moshe then offered various inaugural sacrifices on their behalf.

Fifth Aliyah: The Torah continues describing the procedure for the offering, and the consumption of the inaugural sacrifices. G‑d commands Moshe to repeat this inaugural service for a seven-day period, after which the consecration will be complete. Also included in this section is a description of how future High Priests are to be inducted.

Sixth Aliyah: G‑d instructs the Jews to offer two burnt offerings daily for perpetuity; one lamb in the morning and one in the afternoon. G‑d promises to dwell in the Mishkan.

Seventh Aliyah: This section describes the Incense Altar which stood in the sanctuary. The priests are commanded to burn incense upon this altar twice daily.

Parashat Terumah

General Overview: G‑d commands B’nai Israel to build a Mishkan. He provides the exact details of how to construct it, and how to build the different instruments and vessels which were used therein.

First Aliyah: G‑d instructed Moshe to accept contributions from B’nai Israel for the construction of a Mishkan: "Let them make for Me a sanctuary, and I will dwell amongst them." The needed materials: precious metals, dyed wools and hides, flax, wood, olive oil, spices and gems. G‑d then gave detailed instructions regarding the construction and dimensions of the Mishkan and its vessels—starting with the Ark that housed the Tablets. The Ark was to be made of gold-plated acacia wood. Rings were to be attached to the corners of the Ark, wherein were inserted the poles that were used to transport the Ark.

Second Aliyah: The Ark was to be covered with a slab of pure gold. Two golden, winged cherubs were to protrude from this cover. Next G‑d gave instructions for constructing the Table for the Showbread. This table was also to be made of gold-plated acacia wood, and also to contain rings for transportation poles.

Third Aliyah: The seven branched Menorah (candelabra) was next on G‑d's list. It was to be beaten out of a single block of pure gold, with decorative cups, knobs and flowers on its body. The Torah now turns its attention to the construction of the Mishkan's sanctuary. The covering of the Sanctuary was to consist of several layers of tapestries. The first layer was to be a woven mixture of dyed wools and linen. The second layer was to be made of goat's hair. These two oversized coverings also covered the outsides of the Mishkan's walls. The very top of the Mishkan was then to be further covered by dyed ram skins and tachash hides.

Fourth Aliyah: The walls of the Mishkan were to be upright beams made of gold-plated acacia wood. The bottom of each beam had two projections that were to be inserted into two silver sockets. The Mishkan's front side (to the east) was to have no wall. Its northern and southern side were to have twenty beams each. Its western wall was to have eight. Altogether the inside of the sanctuary was 30 cubits (approx. 45 feet) by 10 cubits, and 10 cubits high. The beams were held together by several crossbars.

Fifth Aliyah: The Mishkan's sanctuary was to consist of two sections: the innermost chamber was the Holy of Holies, wherein the Ark was to be placed; and the outer chamber was the Holy Chamber, which housed the Menorah and the Table (as well as the Golden Altar which will be described in next week's reading). Two curtains were to be woven of dyed wools and linen. One was to be placed between the Holy of Holies and the Holy Chamber, the other covered the eastern side of the Mishkan—its entrance.

Sixth Aliyah: G‑d then gave instructions for the construction of the Outdoor Altar. This altar was to be made of copper-plated acacia wood, and it was to have four "horns," vertical projections, protruding from its uppermost corners. The altar, too, was equipped with rings and transportation poles.

Seventh Aliyah: The Mishkan's courtyard was to be 100 cubits (approx. 150 feet) by 50 cubits, and enclosed by mesh linen curtains. The entrance to the courtyard was to be on its eastern side, and the entrance was to be covered by a curtain woven of dyed wools and linen.

Parashat Mishpatim

General Overview: This week's reading, Mishpatim, details many laws, including laws related to slaves, personal injury, loans, usury, and property damage. The end of the portion speaks of the preparations B’nai Israel made before receiving the Torah at Har Sinai.


First Aliyah: This section discusses laws pertaining to the Israelite servant, his mandatory release after six years of service, and the procedure followed when a servant expresses his desire to remain in his master's service. The Torah continues with the laws of the Israelite maidservant, and her terms of release. Other laws contained in this section: a husband's obligations towards his wife; punishments for murder, manslaughter, kidnapping and abusing parents; and the penalties accrued by a person who injures another.


Second Aliyah: This section continues with laws of personal injury: the punishment for one who kills or injures his servant and for one who causes a woman to miscarry. The Torah then shifts its focus to a person's liabilities for damages caused by his possessions, such as an ox that gores; or his actions, such as leaving an open pit uncovered. A person who steals is liable to pay the capital plus punitive damages. The section concludes with a person's right to self-defense when facing a marauding thief.


Third Aliyah: An arsonist is liable for damages caused by fires he ignites. The Torah then details the potential liabilities of an individual who undertakes to be a guardian of another's possessions, a borrower, and a renter. More laws: the punishment for seducing a young woman, sorcery, bestiality and offering an idolatrous sacrifice; prohibitions against harassing a foreigner, widow, or orphan; the mitzvah of lending money to the poor and the prohibition against lending with interest.


Fourth Aliyah: This section, too, introduces us to many new mitzvot: the prohibitions against cursing a judge or leader, consuming meat that was not ritually slaughtered, offering a sacrifice before the animal is eight days old, perjury, and judicial corruption; the commandments to separate all agricultural tithes in their proper order, sanctify the first-born son, return a lost animal to its owner, and help unload an overburdened animal.


Fifth Aliyah: We are commanded not to lie or take a bribe. The mitzvah of the Shemitah (Sabbatical year) is introduced: six years we work and harvest the land, and on the seventh year we allow the land to rest. Similarly, on a weekly basis, six days we work and on the seventh day we – and our cattle and servants – must rest. We are forbidden to mention the name of other gods. We are commanded to celebrate the three festivals — Passover, Shavuot and Sukkot – and to make pilgrimages to the Beit Hamikdash on these occasions. Finally, we are told not to cook meat in (its mother's) milk.


Sixth Aliyah: G‑d informed B’nai Israel that He would dispatch an angel to lead them into Canaan. This angel would not tolerate disobedience. If, however, B’nai Israel would hearken to the angel, and eradicate idolatry from Eretz Yisrael, then they will be greatly rewarded. Their Canaanite enemies will fall before them and G‑d "will bless your food and your drink, and will remove illness from your midst."


Seventh Aliyah: This section continues describing the blessings the Israelites will receive if they faithfully serve G‑d: no miscarriages or barren women, longevity, wide spacious borders and supernatural assistance in their quest to conquer the Holy Land. G‑d warns B’nai Israel against entering into treaties with the Canaanite natives or allowing them to remain in the land after B’nai Israel’s invasion. The Torah now relates some of the events that occurred in the days immediately prior to the giving of the Torah. Moshe went up the mountain and received a message from G‑d which he communicated to the people. B’nai Israel enthusiastically committed themselves to following all of G‑d's laws. Moshe transcribed the "Book of the Covenant" and read it to the people. Then, together with B’nai Israel’s firstborn, Moshe offered sacrifices and sprinkled the blood on the people, bringing them into a covenant with G‑d. This section concludes with G‑d summoning Moshe – after the giving of the Torah – to ascend the mountain where he would remain for forty days and nights, and would then be given the Tablets.

Parashat Yitro

General Overview: In this week’s reading of Yitro, Moshe’s father-in-law, Yitro, arrives at B’nai Israel’s encampment and advises them to set up a smoothly functioning legal system. B’nai Israel experience the divine revelation at Har Sinai and hear the Ten Commandments.


First Aliyah: Yitro, Moshe’s father-in-law, having heard about all the miracles that G‑d wrought for B’nai Israel, came from his native Midian to B’nai Yisrael’s desert encampment—bringing along Moshe’s wife and two sons. Moshe warmly greeted his father-in-law, and recounted to him all that G‑d had done to the Egyptians. Yitro thanked G‑d for all the miracles, and offered thanksgiving sacrifices.


Second Aliyah: Yitro observed Moshe adjudicating all the disputes that arose among B’nai Israel. Yitro suggested to Moshe that such a system, one that placed such a great burden on Moshe’s shoulders, would eventually wear him down. Instead, he advised Moshe to appoint a hierarchy of wise and righteous judges, and to delegate his responsibilities—with Moshe presiding only over the most difficult cases. This would also free up Moshe’s time to teach B’nai Israel the teachings of the Torah that he hears from G‑d.


Third Aliyah: Moshe accepted his father-in-law’s suggestion and set up a hierarchical judicial system. Yitro then returned to his native land.


Fourth Aliyah: Six weeks after leaving Egypt, B’nai Israel arrived in the Sinai Desert and encamped at the foot of Har Sinai. Moshe ascended the mountain, where G‑d gave him a message to transmit to the people. Included in this message was G‑d’s designation of B’nai Israel as His “treasure out of all peoples” and a “kingdom of princes and a holy nation.”


Fifth Aliyah: Moshe conveyed to the people G‑d’s words, and the people in turn accepted upon themselves to do all that G‑d commands of them. G‑d then instructed Moshe to have B’nai Israel prepare themselves, because in three days’ time He would reveal Himself atop the mountain to the entire nation. B’nai Israel were commanded to sanctify themselves and were warned not to approach the mountain until after the divine revelation. On the morning of the third day, thunder, lightning, a thick cloud and the piercing sound of a shofar emanated from the mountaintop. Har Sinai was smoking and trembling, while the sound of the shofar grew steadily louder. Moshe escorted the shuddering and frightened nation to the mountain and settled them at its base.


Sixth Aliyah: G‑d descended upon the mountain, and summoned Moshe to its summit. G‑d instructed Moshe to again warn the Israelites about the tragic end that awaited anyone who approaches the mountain itself. Only Moshe and his brother Aharon were allowed on the mountain during this time. G‑d then spoke the Ten Commandments to B’nai Israel. They are: 1) Belief in G‑d. 2) Not to worship idols. 3) Not to take G‑d’s name in vain. 4) To keep the Shabbat. 5) To honor parents. 6) Not to murder. 7) Not to commit adultery. 8) Not to steal. 9) Not to bear false witness. 10) Not to covet another’s property.

Seventh Aliyah: B’nai Israel were left traumatized by the overwhelming revelation, the awesome “light and sound” show. They turned to Moshe and asked that from then on he should serve as an intermediary between them and G‑d: Moshe should hear G‑d’s word and transmit it to the people. Moshe agreed. The reading concludes with a prohibition against creating idolatrous graven images—considering that no image was seen when G‑d revealed Himself on Har Sinai—and the commandment to erect a sacrificial altar. The altar stones should not be hewn with iron implements, nor should there be steps leading to the top of the altar.


Parashat Beshalach

General Overview: In this week's reading, Beshalach, Pharaoh pursues B’nei Israel into the desert. The Red Sea splits, B’nei Israel cross the sea while the Egyptian army is drowned. Moshe and the B’nei Israel sing a special song thanking G‑d for this miracle. B’nei Israel complain about a lack of food and drink. G‑d sends Manna and quail for them to eat, and miraculously produces water from a rock. Amalek attacks B’nei Israel and is soundly defeated.

First Aliyah: After Pharaoh sent B’nei Israel from his land, G‑d did not allow them to take the most direct route to the Promised Land, fearing that any confrontation would then frighten B’nei Israel, causing them to return to Egypt via this short route. Instead G‑d had them take the circuitous desert route, leading them with a pillar of cloud during daytime and a pillar of fire after dark. G‑d then commanded B’nei Israel to backtrack and encamp along the Red Sea. They would thus appear to be hopelessly lost, which would prompt the Egyptians to pursue them. B’nei Israel followed this instruction, and, indeed, the Egyptians armies set out after the "lost" and cornered people.

Second Aliyah: B’nei Israel noticed the approaching Egyptian armies, and they panicked. "Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us to die in the desert?" they screamed at Moshe. "Don't be afraid," Moshe reassured. "Stand firm and see G‑d's salvation that He will wreak for you today . . . G‑d will fight for you, and you shall remain silent."

Third Aliyah: G‑d instructed Moshe, "Speak to the children of Israel and let them travel!" G‑d told Moshe to stretch out his staff over the sea and divide it, and B’nei Israel should then proceed through the split sea. "And the Egyptians shall know that I am G‑d, when I will be glorified through Pharaoh, through his chariots, and through his horsemen." Meanwhile, the pillar of cloud that normally led B’nei Israel moved to their rear, insulating the Israelites and plunging the Egyptian camp into darkness. Moshe stretched out his staff and the sea divided, and B’nei Israel walked on the seabed, on dry land. The Egyptians quickly pursued them into the sea.

Fourth Aliyah: Moshe stretched his hand over the sea and the waters that had been standing like walls now fell upon the Egyptians, drowning them all. Moshe then led B’nei Israel in song, praising G‑d for the wondrous miracle that had transpired. Miriam, Moshe’s sister, then led the women in song and dance, with musical accompaniment. B’nei Israel traveled on in the desert, journeying three days without encountering water. They then arrived in Marah, where there was water—but bitter water. Moshe miraculously sweetened the water.

Fifth Aliyah: One month after the Exodus, the B’nei Israel’s provisions ran dry. They complained to Moshe, mentioning nostalgically "the fleshpots of Egypt," that they left behind. G‑d responded that He will rain down bread from heaven in the mornings, and meat will be provided every night.

Sixth Aliyah: The meat, in the form of quails, appeared in the evening and covered B’nei Israel’s camp. In the morning, bread – called manna – fell from heaven, encased between layers of morning dew. Moshe told B’nei Israel to gather one omer (a biblical measure) of manna per household member every day. Miraculously, no matter how much manna one picked, he arrived home with precisely one omer per head. Furthermore, Moshe commanded B’nei Israel not to leave any manna over from one day to the next. Some disregarded this instruction, and next morning found their manna worm-infested. On Friday everyone picked two omers. Moshe explained that the second portion was to be prepared and set aside for Shabbat—when no manna would fall. Again, some disregarded Moshe’s directive, and went out pick manna on Shabbat. G‑d was angered by this disobedience. G‑d instructed Moshe to take a jar of manna and place it in the (yet to be constructed) Tabernacle, as a testament for all future generations.

Seventh Aliyah: B’nei Israel journeyed further and as they arrived in Rephidim their drinking water ran out again. The nation complained, and G‑d instructed Moshe to smite a certain rock with his staff. Water came pouring out of the rock and the people drank. The Amalekites then came and attacked B’nei Israel. Moshe directed his student Yehoshua to assemble an army and battle Amalek. Yehoshua did so, and B’nei Israel were victorious—aided by Moshe’s prayer atop a mountain. G‑d told Moshe to record in the Book that He will "surely erase the memory of Amalek from under the heavens."

Parashat Bo

General Overview: General Overview: In this week’s reading, Bo, the last three plagues—Locust, Darkness, and Death of the Firstborn—are inflicted upon the Egyptians. Moses commands the Israelites concerning the Paschal offering and the laws of the Seder. After the final plague, Pharaoh unconditionally releases the Israelites from his land.

First Aliyah: Plague Eight: At G‑d’s behest, Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and delivered a warning: “How long will you refuse to humble yourself before Me? Let My people go, so that they can worship Me!” They informed Pharaoh that if he does not allow the Israelites to go, Egypt will be attacked by a plague of locusts. After Moses and Aaron left, Pharaoh’s servants begged him to allow the Israelites to leave. “Don’t you yet know that Egypt is lost?” they argued. Pharaoh called back Moses and Aaron, and offered to allow the Israelites to leave—provided that they leave behind their children as security. Moses and Aaron refused the offer, and Pharaoh stubbornly refused to allow the Israelites to go.

Second Aliyah: Moses stretched out his hands, and swarms of locusts swept down on Egypt. They consumed absolutely every blade of grass, and all the crops. Pharaoh beseeched Moses to pray to G‑d for the removal of the locusts, promising to then release the Israelites. Moses prayed, and no sooner had a wind carried the locusts back to the Red Sea than Pharaoh changed his mind yet again. Plague Nine: A frightful darkness descended upon Egypt. For days, the entire nation was incapacitated by the debilitating pitch darkness. “But for all the children of Israel, there was light in their dwellings.”

Third Aliyah: Pharaoh summoned Moses again, offering to release the Israelites if they leave behind their cattle. Moses refused the condition. Pharaoh sent Moses away, warning him to never appear in his presence again, “for on the day that you see my face, you shall die!” Moses agreed, but not before he delivered a final message that G‑d relayed to him at that moment. G‑d told Moses that he would visit one more plague upon Egypt, after which Pharaoh will actually drive the Israelites from his land. Parenthetically, at that time G‑d also instructed Moses to ask the Israelites to borrow from their Egyptian neighbors jewels, silver and gold. The Israelites complied, and the Egyptians readily lent out their valuables.

Fourth Aliyah: Moses delivered G‑d’s warning to Pharaoh: “At midnight, I will go out in the midst of Egypt. Every firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne to the firstborn of the slave woman . . .” G‑d then gave the Israelites their first mitzvah, that of determining the New Moon (Rosh Chodesh) each month and establishing a lunar calendar. G‑d also told Moses to instruct the Israelites to designate a lamb for the Paschal offering. The Israelites were to sacrifice this lamb and consume it, together with matzah and bitter herbs, on the eve of the fifteenth of Nissan. The blood of the lamb was to be smeared on the lintels and doorposts of the Israelite residences, and all inside those homes would be spared when G‑d descended to smite the Egyptian firstborn. G‑d also instructed that for all future generations this day would signal the beginning of the seven-day holiday of Passover, during which no leaven may be eaten or possessed.

Fifth Aliyah: Moses gathered the Israelite elders and conveyed to them G‑d’s instructions.

Sixth Aliyah: Plague Ten: At the stroke of midnight, G‑d slew all the Egyptian firstborn. No Egyptian home was spared, and Egypt erupted in a great outcry. Pharaoh awoke and raced to Moses, and begged him to take the Israelites and leave. The Egyptians pressured the Israelites to leave as soon as possible, and the Israelites complied. Equipped with all the valuables they had borrowed from the Egyptians, and provisions for the way—dough that was baked before having time to rise—the Israelites left Egypt at midday of the fifteenth of Nissan. This section concludes with some more rules that pertain to the Paschal offering.

Seventh Aliyah: G‑d gave the Israelites several mitzvot: 1) All male Israelite firstborn were henceforth sanctified to G‑d. 2) Eat matzah on Passover. 3) Recount the story of the Exodus at the Passover Seder. 4) Bring all male firstborn of kosher animals as sacrifices. 5) Redeem all male firstborn donkeys for a sheep—which is given to a kohen (priest). 6) Don tefillin on the head and arm.

Parashat Vaera

General Overview: In this week's reading, Vaera, Pharaoh refuses to allow Bnai Israel to leave Egypt, even after Aaron exhibits miraculous powers, transforming his staff into a serpent. The first seven plagues strike Egypt: Blood, Frogs, Lice, Wild Beasts, Pestilence, Boils, and Fiery Hail.

First Aliyah: This week's parasha opens with G‑d's response to Moshe (continuation from the end of last week's reading). G‑d told Moshe that He revealed Himself to the Avot and established with them a covenant to give them the land of Canaan. And now the time has arrived to fulfill His promises. G‑d told Moshe to tell Bnai Israel that He has heard their cries, and He will now deliver them from Egypt and bring them to the Promised Land. Moshe relayed the message, but their unbearable workload prevented them from accepting his words. G‑d then told Moshe to instruct Pharaoh to send Bnai Israel from his land. Moshe protested: "If the children of Israel did not listen to me, how then will Pharaoh listen to me? I have a speech impediment?" (G‑d's answer below in the Third Aliyah.)

Second Aliyah: The Torah takes a brief interlude and traces the lineage of Moshe and Aaron, listing their family trees.

Third Aliyah: G‑d tells Moshe to go speak to Pharaoh, and Aaron should serve as his spokesman. G‑d informed him that He will harden Pharaoh's heart and he will refuse to release Bnai Israel. At that point G‑d will "multiply His wonders" in Egypt, until the Egyptians will recognize that G‑d is the L-rd.

Fourth Aliyah: Moshe and Aaron appeared before Pharaoh. As per G‑d's instructions, Aaron cast his staff on the ground, and it turned into a serpent. When Pharaoh's magicians did the same with their staffs, Aaron's staff swallowed theirs. Pharaoh remained unimpressed—and so the plagues commenced. Plague One: Aaron smote the Nile with his staff. The river and all the waters in Egypt turned into blood, and all the fish perished. Plague Two: Aaron stretched his staff upon the Nile and droves of frogs emerged. They covered the land, entered all the houses, even the ovens and kneading bowls. Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and begged them to pray to G‑d to remove the plague, after which he would release Bnai Israel.

Fifth Aliyah: Moshe prayed to G‑d, and the frogs all died. Egypt reeked from the odor of rotting frogs, and Pharaoh reneged on his promise. Plague Three: Aaron smote the earth with his staff, and swarms of lice attacked Egypt, covering man and beast. Even Pharaoh's magicians were amazed by this, and informed Pharaoh that this is the "finger of G‑d." Plague Four: G‑d dispatched Moshe to warn Pharaoh that his land will be infested by a mixture of noxious animals. Only the land of Goshen, where Bnai Israel lived, would be spared.

Sixth Aliyah: The mixture of wild beasts descended upon Egypt, destroying the entire land with the exception of Goshen. Pharaoh called Moshe and Aaron and offered to allow Bnai Israel freedom to serve G‑d whilst still in Egypt. When Moses rejected this offer, Pharaoh capitulated and offered to release Bnai Israel if only the plague came to an end. Moses prayed, the plague ended, and Pharaoh reneged on his promise again. Plague Five: all the Egyptians' cattle suddenly died; none of Bnai Israel's animals were affected. Plague Six: Moshe and Aaron took handfuls of furnace soot and threw them heavenward. The soot descended, covered the entire Egypt, infecting all its inhabitants with painful boils. G‑d sent Moses to Pharaoh with a message: Just as G‑d wiped out all the Egyptian cattle, He could have easily slain Pharaoh and all his people too. "But, for this [reason] I have allowed you to survive, in order to show you My strength and to declare My name all over the earth!"

Seventh Aliyah: Plague Seven: Moshe warned Pharaoh that a catastrophic hail would descend upon the land. Man or beast that would remain in the field would be killed by the hailstones. Moshe stretched his rod toward heaven and hail poured down—with fire blazing inside the icy hail. Aside for damage to humans and animal, the hail destroyed all vegetation and trees. Pharaoh summoned Moshe and Aaron. "I have sinned this time," he declared. "The Lord is the righteous One, and I and my people are the guilty ones. Entreat the Lord, and let it be enough of God's thunder and hail, and I will let you go..." Moshe prayed. The hail stopped. And Pharaoh changed his mind yet again.

Parashat Shemot

General Overview: This week's Torah reading, Shemot, begins the Book of Exodus. Pharaoh issues harsh decrees against the Israelites, beginning decades of Jewish suffering and slavery. Moses is born and raised in the Egyptian royal palace. After killing an Egyptian, Moses escapes to Midian and marries. G‑d appears to him in a burning bush and demands that he return to Egypt to redeem the Israelites. Moses returns to Egypt with the intention of freeing the Jewish people.

First Aliyah: Yacov's sons all died. Yacov's descendants in Egypt, however, were "fruitful and swarmed and increased and became very very strong." A new Pharaoh arose, and he resolved to find a solution to the "Israelite problem." He proposed to afflict the Israelites and impose slave labor upon them, thus preventing them from multiplying. He implemented the plan, and the Israelites were forced to construct storage cities for Pharaoh. "But as much as they would afflict them, so did they multiply and so did they gain strength." Pharaoh then summoned the Hebrew midwives and instructed them to kill all the Hebrew sons that they delivered. The righteous midwives feared G‑d, however, and defied Pharaohs order.

Second Aliyah: Pharaoh called the midwives to task for not following orders. They answered that the Hebrew women were skilled in midwifery and delivered their babies before they even arrived. G‑d rewarded the midwives for their bravery. Pharaoh then commanded the Egyptians to cast all newborn males into the Nile. Moses was born. His mother, who feared for her baby's life, put him into a waterproofed basket and set him afloat in the Nile. Pharaoh's daughter came to bathe, and took the child as her own. Moses' sister Miriam, who observed the entire episode, offered to bring a Hebrew nursemaid for the child, and when Pharaoh's daughter agreed to the suggestion, Miriam called the child's mother. Moses' mother nursed the child and after he was weaned brought him back to Pharaoh's daughter.

Third Aliyah: Moses was raised in Pharaoh's palace. When he matured, he went out one day and saw an Egyptian smiting a Hebrew. Moses slew the Egyptian. Word of his deed reached Pharaoh, and Moses was compelled to flee. He escaped to Midian where he married Zipporah, the daughter of Yethro. They gave birth to a son, Gershom. Back in Egypt, meanwhile, the plight of the Israelite slaves was worsening. They cried out to G‑d, and He remembered the covenant He had made with their forefathers.

Fourth Aliyah: Moshe was shepherding Yethro's flocks in the wilderness when he arrived at the "mountain of G‑d." There he saw a bush burning, yet it was not being consumed by the fire. When he approached to investigate the phenomenon, G‑d called out to him. G‑d declared that He has seen the Israelite's' afflictions, and has decided to deliver them from their Egyptian masters.

Fifth Aliyah: G‑d gave Moshe specific instructions: He was to gather the Israelite elders and inform them that G‑d had remembered them and would now rescue them from Egypt and bring them to a Land of Milk and Honey. Then he was to approach Pharaoh and request permission to leave along with the Israelites. G‑d informed Moses that Pharaoh would not accede to this request – but the redemption would come nonetheless, after G‑d will smite Egypt with a strong arm. At that point the Israelites would leave with much riches. G‑d gave Moses three miracles to perform before the Israelites to prove that he was sent by G‑d. When Moshe protested that he was not suited to be G‑d's messenger due to his speech impediment, G‑d assigned his brother Aharon to be his spokesperson.

Sixth Aliyah: Moshe took his wife and two sons and headed for Egypt. G‑d charged Moshe to warn Pharaoh: "So said G‑d, 'My firstborn son is Israel. So I say to you, send out My son so that he will worship Me. And if you refuse to send him out, behold, I will slay your firstborn son.'" En route to Egypt, Moshes' wife rescued her husband from divine wrath by performing a circumcision on their son. Moses met Aaron, who had come from Egypt to greet him, and together they went to Egypt, gathered the elders and performed the wondrous signs that G‑d had given Moshe.

Seventh Aliyah: Moshe and Aharon went to Pharaoh and presented G‑d's demand. Pharaoh mocked the request and instructed the Egyptian taskmasters to increase the Israelite slaves' workload. The Israelites were unable to meet Pharaoh's new demands, and were viciously beaten as a result. Moshe addressed G‑d: "Why have You mistreated this people? Why have You sent me? Since I have come to Pharaoh to speak in Your name, he has mistreated this people, and You have not saved Your people." G‑d responded: "Now you will see what I will do to Pharaoh, for with a mighty hand he will send them out..."

Parashat Vayechi

General Overview: This week's Torah reading, Vayechi, discusses Yacov's final years. Shortly before his passing, Yacov blesses Yoseph's children as well as his own. A massive funeral procession escorts Yacov's body to Cenaan. The reading, and the Book of Genesis, concludes with Yoseph's death.

First Aliyah: Yacov lived his last seventeen years in Egypt. When Yacov sensed that his days were numbered he summoned Yoseph and asked him to promise that he would bury him in Israel. Yoseph acceded to the request. When Jacob then fell ill, Yoseph visited him, accompanied by his two sons, Menasseh and Efhraim. Jacob conferred upon Ephraim and Manasseh the status of tribal progenitors, a status hitherto enjoyed only by Jacob's sons. Joseph asked his father to bless Ephraim and Manasseh.

Second Aliyah: Yoseph presents his two sons, placing Manasseh, the firstborn, to Yacov's right, and Ephraim to Yacov's left. Yacov, who was nearly blind at this point, crossed his hands, placing his right – more prestigious – hand on Ephraim's head. He blessed them: "May the angel who redeemed me from all harm bless the youths, and may they be called by my name and the name of my fathers, Avraham and Isaac, and may they multiply abundantly like fish, in the midst of the land."

Third Aliyah: Yoseph was disturbed that Jacob placed his right hand on Ephraim, and he attempted to adjust his father's hands. "I know, my son, I know," Yacov responded, explaining that the "younger brother will be greater, and his children['s fame] will fill the nations." Yacov blessed the two boys further, saying that all of Israel will bless each other by saying: "May G‑d make you like Ephraim and Manasseh."

Fourth Aliyah: Yacov summoned all his sons, and delivered to each a poetic, and sometimes cryptic, parting personal message. Reuven was chastised for his impetuousness and for "ascending upon his father's bed." Shimon and Levi were rebuked for their anger, which expressed itself in the killing of the Shechemites and the attempted execution of Yoseph. Yeudah was blessed with a monarchy, success in waging battle, and an abundance of wine and milk in his portion. Zevulon was blessed with success in his sea-trade endeavors. Yacov likened Issachar to a thick-boned donkey who finds both rest and ample work. Dan was blessed with the tenacity of a serpent and the ability to judge.

Fifth Aliyah: Gad was blessed with bravery in battle. Asher's blessing: an abundance of olive oil. Naphtali was blessed with the speed of a deer. Joseph was recognized for his charm, suffering, and righteousness, and was showered with a variety of blessings.

Sixth Aliyah: Benyamin was likened to a devouring wolf. Jacob then repeated his request to be buried in Israel, in the Cave of Machpelah in Hebron, and he passed away at the age of 147. After an extended national mourning period, Yoseph received Pharaoh's permission to carry Yacov's body up to Israel. A huge funeral procession consisting of all the elders of Egypt as well as Jacob's family went and buried Jacob. After returning to Egypt, Yoseph's brothers feared that now, after Yacov had passed away, Joseph would exact revenge from them for selling him into slavery. Yoseph reassured them that he harbored no ill feelings towards them.

Seventh Aliyah: Yoseph lived until the age of 110. Before passing away he told his brothers that G‑d would eventually take them out of Egypt and return them to the Promised Land. Yoseph asked his brothers to promise that when that time arrived they would carry his remains with them, and inter him in Israel.

Parshat Vayigash

General Overview: In this week's Torah reading, Vayigash, Yeudah responds to Yoseph's demand that Benjamin remain enslaved in Egypt, pleading to be taken as a substitute. Joseph reveals his identity to his brothers. At Yoseph's request, Yacov and his family come down to Egypt.

First Aliyah: In the end of last week's Torah reading, Yoseph demanded that Benjamin remain behind in Egypt as his slave. This week's reading opens with Yeudah approaching Yoseph and appealed to him to allow Benjamin to return to his father Yacov in Cenaan. He spoke of Yacov's reluctance to allow Benjamin – Rachel's only remaining child – to make the trip to Egypt, and the great love Yacov harbored for his youngest son.

Second Aliyah: Yeudah continued: "When [Yacov] sees that the boy is gone, he will die." He explained to Yoseph that he, Yeudah, had taken personal responsibility that Benjamin would return unharmed to Cenaan. And as such, he asked to remain as a slave in stead of Benjamin. At that point, Yoseph could not restrain himself any longer. He asked all the Egyptians present to leave the room, and he revealed his identity to his brothers: "I am Yoseph! Is my father still alive?!" He then reassured them, and asked them not to be upset about selling him into slavery: "For it was to preserve life that G‑d sent me before you. For . . . another five years there will be neither plowing nor harvest, and G‑d sent me before you to ensure your survival in the land..."

Third Aliyah: Yoseph directed his brothers to quickly return to Cenaan and bring Yacov and their families back to Egypt, where Yoseph promised to provide them with food until the famine ends. Yoseph embraced his brothers and cried. Pharaoh was informed that Yoseph's family had arrived, and he, too, instructed them to come to Egypt where he would give them the "best of the land." The brothers went to Cenaan – laden with gifts from Pharaoh and Yoseph – and informed Yacov that Yoseph was alive, indeed he ruled over all of Egypt. "And the spirit of their father Yacov was revived."

Fourth Aliyah: Yacov and his entire family left Cenaan and headed to Egypt. En route they stopped in Beer-Sheva, where G‑d told Yacov not to fear going to Egypt, for it is there that he will be made into a great nation. Furthermore G‑d told him: "I will go down with you to Egypt, and I will also bring you up."

Fifth Aliyah: This section names the seventy members of Yacov's family that went to Egypt.

Sixth Aliyah: Yacov arrived in Egypt, to the province of Goshen that Pharaoh had allotted his family. Yoseph went there to greet his father. Yoseph prepared his family for meeting Pharaoh, and instructed his brothers to tell Pharaoh that they are shepherds, who only wish to tend to their flocks in Goshen until the famine ends. Indeed the brothers followed this script, and Pharaoh acceded to their request. Yacov was then brought before Pharaoh, and Yacov blessed him.

Seventh Aliyah: While Yoseph supplied his family with food, the rest of Egypt was in a desperate plight. First they expended all their money in exchange for food that Yoseph sold them. Then their money ran out, and they paid for provisions with their cattle. Finally, when they had no money or chattel left, they sold their land and themselves to Pharaoh into servitude in exchange for provisions. Meanwhile, in the land of Goshen, Yacov's family prospered and multiplied exceedingly.

Parshat Miketz

General Overview: Yosef interprets Pharaoh's dreams, becomes viceroy over Egypt, and implements his plan to save the region from famine. Joseph is harsh with his brothers who come to Egypt to buy food, and demands that Benjamin be brought to Egypt. When Benjamin eventually comes he is framed and accused of theft.

First Aliyah: Pharaoh had a dream: seven fat cows arose from the Nile, followed by seven emaciated cows. The gaunt cows then consumed the robust ones. He then had a second dream, wherein seven healthy ears of grain were eaten by seven thin and parched ears. In the morning, none of Pharaoh's wise men were capable of interpreting the dreams to Pharaoh's satisfaction. Pharaoh's butler approached and related his past jailhouse experience, when a Hebrew boy, Joseph, successfully interpreted dreams. Pharaoh ordered Joseph's release, and he appeared before the king.

Second Aliyah: Pharaoh recounted his dreams to Joseph. Joseph told Pharaoh that both dreams contained a singular message: seven years of plenty were destined to come upon Egypt, followed by seven years of severe famine. Joseph proposed a plan to store the excess grain of the years of plenty, to serve as a reserve for the famine years to follow. Pharaoh was greatly impressed by Joseph's wisdom.

Third Aliyah: Pharaoh appointed Yosef as viceroy of Egypt, and placed him in charge of the impending food collection operation. Thirty-year-old Joseph was placed second-in command of the Egyptian empire, accountable to no one but Pharaoh himself. Indeed, the seven years of plenty arrived as foretold by Joseph, and Joseph skillfully oversaw the collection of the surplus grain. Yosef married Osnat, the daughter of Poti-phera, and she bore him two sons: Manasseh and Ephraim.

Fourth Aliyah: Then the famine predicted by Yosef commenced, a grave famine that affected Egypt and the entire Mediterranean region. Exactly as planned, Yosef had sufficient stores of food, which he personally sold to all who needed. Meanwhile, in nearby Cenaan, Yosef's father, Yacov, dispatched his eldest ten sons – all of them excepting Benjamin – to Egypt to purchase food provisions. The brothers arrived and stood before Yosef, but did not recognize him, as his boyish appearance had changed in the interim years. When the brothers broached their request to purchase food, Yosef dealt with them harshly, accused them of espionage, and incarcerated them all for three days.

Fifth Aliyah: On the third day, Yosef released them all, aside for Simon, whom he held hostage. He bid the rest of the brothers to return to Cenaan and return with their youngest brother, Benjamin, and thus establish their innocence. The brothers recognized that this was punishment for the sale of Joseph, and expressed regret for their deed. Yosef instructed his servants to place the monies the brothers had paid for the food in the sacks of grain they were given. The brothers arrived back in Canaan and recounted the entire episode to Yacov. Yacov was highly disturbed and initially refused to send Benjamin, unwilling to consider the possibility of losing Rachel's only remaining son. Eventually, though, after the food provisions ran low, and Yeudah personally guaranteed Benjamin's safe return, Yacov acceded to send him. He sent them to Egypt with a prayer on his lips, and armed with a gift for the Egyptian ruler.

Sixth Aliyah: The brothers arrived in Egypt. Yosef instructed his palace supervisor to invite the brothers to join him for the afternoon repast. The brothers arrived at Joseph's residence where they were reunited with Simon. Yosef arrived, and the brothers presented him with the gift they had prepared, and they exchanged pleasantries.

Seventh Aliyah: Upon seeing his brother Benjamin, Yosef was overcome with emotion, which he concealed. The brothers sat down and enjoyed a feast, and Yosef presented them all with gifts—Benjamin's gift greater than all the others'. In the morning the brothers departed, but not before Yosef had his royal goblet planted in Benjamin's sack of food. Yosef then dispatched a posse to confront the brothers and "uncover" the planted goblet. The brothers were all brought back to Yosef, who demanded that the "thief," Benjamin alone, remain behind as his slave.

Parshat Vayeshev

 In this week's reading, Vayeishev, Yosef relates to his brothers his grandiose dreams of greatness, arousing their jealousy. He is consequently sold into slavery to an Egyptian master. After defying his Egyptian master's wife, Yosef is thrown into jail, where he interprets the dreams of Pharaoh's cup-bearer and baker. The story of Yehuda and Tamar is also related at length.

First Aliyah: Yacov and his family settled in Canaan. Of all his sons, Yacov favored Yosef, the firstborn of his deceased beloved wife Rachel, and he made for him a special robe of fine wool. Joseph's brothers were jealous of the favoritism, and avoided talking to Yosef. Yosef related to his brothers two dreams he had, both implying that he would eventually rule over his brothers.

Second Aliyah: Yosef's brothers were away tending their father's sheep, when Yacov sent Yosef to see how his brothers and the flocks were faring. When Yosef's brothers saw him approaching they plotted to kill him. Reuven, however, implored them not to shed blood, advising them instead to cast him into one of the nearby pits. Reuven's plan was to later return and rescue Yosef from the pit.

Third Aliyah: Yosef arrived and his brothers immediately stripped him of his fancy robe and cast him into a pit. Upon Yehuda's advice, they sold him to an Ishmaelite caravan traveling to Egypt, who in turn sold him as a slave to Potiphar, Pharaoh's chief butcher. Meanwhile, the brothers dipped Yosef's robe into blood, and showed it to Yacov, who assumed that Yosef was devoured by a wild beast. 

Fourth Aliyah: The story of Yosef is interrupted by the episode of Judah and Tamar. Judah married the daughter of a local businessman and had three sons. His first son, Er, married a woman named Tamar, but died soon thereafter. Yeudah had his second son, Onan, marry Tamar and thus fulfill the mitzvah of Yibbum, but he sin to Gad and died too. Judah hesitated to give his third son to Tamar, so she returned to her father's home. Yeudah's wife then died, and he embarked on a business trip. Tamar dressed herself like a prostitute and sat by the side of the road. Yeudah didn't recognize her, was intimate with her and she becomes pregnant. A few months later, when her pregnancy became evident, Yeudah ordered her executed for harlotry. As she was being taken out to die, she produced some of Yeudah's personal effects that he had left behind when he visited her. Yeudah admitted that he was the father, and Tamar was spared. Tamar then gave birth to twin sons, Zerach and Peretz.

Fifth Aliyah: We return to the story of Joseph, who was serving in the home of Potiphar. G‑d was with Joseph, and he succeeded in all his endeavors. When Potiphar took note of this fact, he put Yoseph in charge of his entire household and estate.

Sixth Aliyah: Yoseph was exceedingly handsome, and Potiphar's wife was attracted to him. She made many advances on him, but he steadfastly rebuffed her. Eventually she libelously told her husband that Yosef was making advances on her, and Potiphar had Yosef thrown into prison. G‑d was still with Joseph, and he found favor in the eyes of the prison warden, who put him in charge of all the prisoners.

Seventh Aliyah: Two of Pharaoh's officers, his butler and baker, aroused the royal ire and were cast into prison—the same one that Yosef was now administering. One night, they both had odd dreams, and Yosef interpreted them. Yosef told the butler that he'd soon be released and restored to Pharaoh's service. The baker was told by Yosef that he would soon be hung. Yosef pleaded with the butler to mention his plight to Pharaoh, and ask for his release. Three days later, both of Yosef's interpretations came true; but the butler forgot all about Joseph.

Parashat Vayishlach Summary; Genesis; Chapter 32 Verse 4 – Chapter 36 Verse 43

General Overview: Yaacov returns to Canaan, but is fearful of his brother Esav. They meet and make peace. Yaacov wrestles with an angel, and his name is changed to Yisrael. Yaacov's daughter Dina is abducted by the prince of Shechem. Shimon and Levi destroy the city of Shechem and liberate Dina. Rachel dies while giving birth to Yaacov's twelfth son, Binyamin. Yitzhak dies at the ripe age of 180.

1st, 2nd & 3rd Sections: It’s the year 2205 and Yaacov is 97 years old. He sends messengers to greet Esav and is informed that Eiav is approaching, prepared to wage war. He applies a three-pronged strategy in preparation for the confrontation: a) Tefilah – prayer b) diplomacy c) war. Prior to the actual confrontation, Yaacov beats Esav in a spiritual battle with Esav’s Angel, and earns the name “Yisrael.” Due to the wound he sustained in the battle, G-d prohibits Yaacov and his family from eating the ‘Gid Hanashe’ – the sciatic nerve. Yaacov and Esav meet for the first time after a long 34 years.

4th Section: Yaacov introduces his whole family to Esav, with the exception of Dina. Yaacov and Esav agree to separate peacefully. Esav returns to his kingdom of Seir, and Yaacov settles outside of the city of Shechem.

5th Section: Dina is abducted and raped by Shechem the son of Chamor, and Shimon and Levi devise a strategy for successfully killing the entire male population of Shechem. According to our Sages, Shimon and Levi were only 13 years old. G-d instructs Yaacov to move to Beth El. Rivka’s nurse Devora dies, and Hashem confirms the name Yisrael upon Yaacov.

6th & 7th Sections: Rachel dies while giving birth to Binyamin and Yaacov buries her in Bet Lechem. Following Rachel’s death, Reuven switches the bed of Yaacov from Bilha’s tent to Leah’s tent. Although Yitzchak will live another 21 years, the Torah relates his death at the age of 180 (2228). The remainder of our Torah portion lists Esav’s descendants as well as the specific Kings of Seir who ruled prior to King Saul – the first king of Israel (2882).

Haftara: Ovadia; Chapter 1 Verses 1 – 21

Haftara Summary: This week's haftara mentions the punishment of Edom, the descendants of Esav, whose conflict with Yaacov is chronicled in this week's Torah reading.

The prophet Ovadia, himself an Edomian convert to Judaism, describes the punishment destined for the nation of Edom. The Edomites did not come to Judea's aid when she was being destroyed by the Babylonians, and even joined in the carnage. Many years later the Edomites (the Roman Empire) themselves destroyed the Second Temple and mercilessly killed and enslaved their Jewish cousins.

Though the Roman Empire was one of the mightiest to ever inhabit the earth, the prophet forewarns: "If you go up high like an eagle, and if you place your nest among the stars, from there I will bring you down, says the Lord. . . And the house of Jacob shall be fire and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of Esav shall become stubble, and they shall ignite them and consume them, and the house of Esav shall have no survivors, for the Lord has spoken."

After describing the division of Esav's lands amongst the returning Judean exiles, the haftara concludes with the well-known phrase: "And saviors shall ascend Mt. Zion to judge the mountain of Esav, and the Lord shall have the kingdom."

Parashat Vayetze Summary; Genesis; Chapter 28 Verse 10 – Chapter 32 Verse 3

Parashat Vayetze Summary; Genesis; Chapter 28 Verse 10 – Chapter 32 Verse 3

General Overview: Yaacov Avinu travels to his uncle Lavan. On his way he stops at the Temple Mount where G‑d appears and assures him that he will return safely to the Land of Canaan. Yaacov stays for twenty years in Charan before returning to Canaan. During his stay he shepherds Lavan's sheep, and survives and prospers despite all his uncle's attempted deceptions. He marries Leah and Rachel, and the first eleven tribes are born.

1st Section: Yaacov experiences the famed prophecy of “Jacob’s Ladder”.

2nd Section: Yaacov arrives in Charan, encounters Rachel, and contracts with Lavan for her hand in marriage.

3rd Section: Lavan switches Leah for Rachel forcing Yaacov to negotiate another 7 years of service for Rachel. Leah gives birth to Reuven, Shimon, Levi, and Yehudah. Rachel marries off Bilhah (her maidservant) to Yaacov who gives birth to Dan and Naftali. Leah marries off Zilpah (her maidservant) to Yaacov, and she gives birth to Gad and Asher.

4th Section: Rachel contracts with Leah for Reuven’s Mandrakes (a Mediterranean plant of the nightshade family, with white or purple flowers and large yellow berries), after which Leah gives birth to Yisachar and Zevulun. Rachel finally gives birth to Yossef, and Yaacov approaches Lavan to negotiate a proper salary for continued service.

5th Section: Yaacov uses his vast knowledge of nature and husbandry to amass a fortune in sheep and cattle. After 6 years he decides with Rachel and Leah to flee from Lavan.

6th Section: They flee and Lavan catches them. Hashem intervenes and Yaacov, while confronting Lavan for his years of duplicity, unwittingly curses Rachel.

7th Section: Yaacov and Lavan separate, and Yaacov arrives at the border of Canaan in 2205.

Haftara: Hoshe’a; Chapter 11 Verse 7 – Chapter 12 Verse 12

Haftara Summary: This week's haftara mentions Jacob's flight from home to the "field of Aram," an episode that is recounted in this week's Torah reading.

The haftara begins with the prophet Hoshe’a's rebuke of the Jewish people for forsaking G‑d. Nevertheless, Hoshe’a assures the people that G‑d will not abandon them: "How can I give you, Ephraim, and deliver you [to the hands of the nations? I will not act with My fierce anger; I will not return to destroy Ephraim."

The prophet discusses the misdeeds of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and the future degeneration of the Kingdom of Judea. He contrasts their behavior to that of their forefather Jacob who was faithful to G‑d and prevailed against enemies, both human and angelic.

The haftara also makes mention of the ingathering of the exiles which will occur during the Final Redemption: "They shall hasten like a bird from Egypt and like a dove from the land of Assyria; and I will place them in their houses, says the Lord."

Parashat Toledot Summary; Genesis; Chapter 25 Verse 19 – Chapter 28 Verse 9

Parashat Toledot Summary; Genesis; Chapter 25 Verse 19 – Chapter 28 Verse 9

General Overview: This week we read about the birth of Esav and Yaacov. Yitzhak relocates to Philistine where he digs wells, resulting in friction between him and the locals. Rivkah and Yaacov successfully deceive Yitzhak, tricking him into giving to Yaacov the blessings he had intended for Esav.

1st Section: Yitzhak is 40 years old (2088) when he marries Rivkah. After 20 years, Esav and Yaacov are born. The Torah portion jumps from their birth to Yaacov’s purchase of the firstborn rights from Esav at the age of 15, (2123 – the same day Avraham died).

2nd Section: The Torah portion returns to the story of Yitzhak and Rivkah and the famine which forces them to settle among the Philistines. Yitzhak, like his father before him, has a moral confrontation with Avimelech (the king of Philistine), after which his fields are uniquely prolific and financially successful.

3rd Section: Yitzhak’s financial success leads to jealousy with his Philistine neighbors. He re-digs Avraham’s wells, resulting in a confrontation with the Philistines over water rights. He moves back to Beer Sheva.

4th Section: G-d reveals Himself to Yitzhak in a dream and confirms the future of his children. Avimelech and his General, Phicol, approach Yitzhak to make a peace treaty.

5th Section: The treaty between Yitzhak and the Philistine is celebrated. The Torah returns to the story of Yaacov and Esav. Esav’s marriage to two Canaanite women at the age of 40 (2148) brings disappointment to Yitzchak and Rivkah. In 2171, when Yaacov and Esav are 63 and Yitzhak is 123, Yitzhak blesses Yaacov and Esav. The Torah details the duplicity of Yaacov and Rivkah in fooling Yitzhak.

6th Section: Yitzhak blesses Yaacov with spiritual and material gain, after which Esav returns to discover Yaacov’s plot. He receives his own blessing for material gain, and is determined to kill Yaacov. Rivkah, fearful for Yaacov’s life, convinces Yitzhak to send Yaacov to her brother Lavan in search of a suitable wife. Yitzhak confirms on Yaacov the future of the Jewish nation before his departure to Lavan.

7th Section: Yaacov departs for Padan Aram, and Esav marries the daughter of Yishmael, (his half cousin).

Haftara: Malachi; Chapter 1 Verse 1 – Chapter 2 Verse 7

Haftara Summary: This week's haftara opens with a mention of the tremendous love G‑d harbors for the children of Jacob, and the retribution He will visit upon the children of Esav who persecuted their cousins. This follows the theme of this week's Torah reading, whose two protagonists are Jacob and Esav.

The prophet Malachi then rebukes the kohanim (priests) who offer blemished and emaciated animals on G‑d's altar: "Were you to offer it to your governor, would he be pleased or would he favor you? . . . O that there were even one among you that would close the doors [of the Temple] and that you would not kindle fire on My altar in vain!"

The haftara ends with a strong enjoinder to the kohanim to return to the original covenant that G‑d had made with their ancestor, Aaron the High Priest. "True teaching was in his mouth, and injustice was not found on his lips. In peace and equity, he went with Me, and he brought back many from iniquity."

Parashat Chaye Sarah Summary; Genesis; Chapter 23 Verse 1 – Chapter 25 Verse 18

Parashat Chaye Sarah Summary; Genesis; Chapter 23 Verse 1 – Chapter 25 Verse 18

General Overview: In this week's Torah reading, Chaye Sarah, Sarah dies and Avraham purchases the Cave of Machpelah as a burial plot for his wife. Avraham's servant Eliezer travels to Aram to find a wife for Yitzhak. Yitzhak marries Rivkah. Avraham dies.

1st Section: Sarah dies at the age of 127. Avraham negotiates with Ephron the Hitite to purchase the Cave of Machpelah as a burial place for Sarah. Tradition says that this is also the burial place of Adam and Chava.

2nd Section: Avraham sends Eliezer, his trusted servant, to Aram Naharayim, (between the Tigris and the Euphrates) to find Yitzhak a bride.

3rd Section: Leading a caravan of supplies and riches, Eliezer arrives to the city Nachor. While resting by “the well”, he plans a test to ascertain the worthiness of a potential mate for Yitzhak. Rivkah (Yitzhak’s 1st cousin once removed) meets all the criteria and Eliezer presents her with the appropriate gifts.

4th Section: Eliezer is invited into Betuel’s home (Rivkah’s father) and he relates the entire story of his mission and his encounter with Rivkah. Eliezer asks for her hand in marriage to Yitzhak. Betuel and Lavan (Rivka’s brother) agree.

5th Section: Rivkah expresses her desire to depart immediately. Her family blesses her, and Eliezer brings her to Canaan. Yitzhak marries Rivka in the year 2108.

6th Section: Avraham remarried and fathered several more children. Before his death, Avraham gave gifts to his other children and sent them all away, and bestowed all the rest of his possessions to Yitzhak. Avraham died at the age of 175, and was buried by Yitzhak and Yishmael in the cave of Machpelah beside his wife, Sarah.

7th Section: Yishmael’s progeny are detailed in this section. Yishmael passes away at the age of 137.

Haftara: Kings 1; Chapter 1 Verses 1 – 31

Haftara Summary: This week's haftara describes an aging King David, echoing this week's Torah reading, which mentions that "Abraham was old, advanced in days."

King David was aging, and he was perpetually cold. A young maiden, Avishag of Shunam, was recruited to serve and provide warmth for the elderly monarch.

Seeing his father advancing in age, Adoniahu, one of King David's sons, seized the opportunity to prepare the ground for his ascension to his father's throne upon the latter's passing, despite King David's express wishes that his son Solomon succeed him. Adoniahu recruited two influential individuals, the High Priest and the commander of David's armies, both of whom had fallen out of David's good graces, to champion his cause. He arranged to be transported in a chariot with fifty people running before him, and invited a number of his sympathizers to a festive party where he publicized his royal ambitions.

The prophet Nathan encouraged Bat Sheva, mother of Solomon, to approach King David and plead with him to reaffirm his choice of Solomon as his successor. This she did, mentioning Adoniahu's recent actions of which the king had been unaware. Nathan later joined the Bat Sheva and the king to express support for Bat Sheva's request. King David acceded to their request: "Indeed," he told Bat Sheva, "as I swore to you by the Lord God of Israel saying, 'Surely Solomon, your son, shall reign after me and he shall sit on my throne in my stead,' surely, so will I swear this day."

Parashat Vayera Summary: Genesis; Chapter 18 Verse 1 – Chapter 22 Verse 24

General Overview: This week the Torah starts with recounting the visiting of three angels to Avraham and Sarah. Rashi explains that each of them had a specific mission to fulfill; the first to inform them that Sarah would give birth to a child despite her advanced age, the second to destroy the evil city of Sedom and the third to heal Avraham from his recent circumcision. Then the third angle (Rafael) saved Lot and his daughters out of Sedom. Later, Avimelech king of the Philistines, attempts to take Sarah as a wife, but through Divine intervention she is released unharmed. Yitzhak is born and Yishmael is expelled from Avraham's household. Avraham makes a peace treaty with Avimelech. The story of the "Binding of Yitzhak" is recounted – Yitzhak’s "near-sacrifice" experience.

1st Section: The three angels appear to Avraham and foretell the birth of Yitzhak. Upon hearing the news, Sarah laughs to herself.

2nd Section: The angels depart to destroy Sedom, and Hashem tells Avraham about His plans for destroying Sedom. G-d’s proclaims His confidence in Avraham to teach the world the concept of justice. Avraham negotiates, unsuccessfully, on behalf of Sedom.

3rd Section: The story of the destruction of Sedom is told. Lot’s generosity to the “two visitors” is rewarded and he, his wife, and only two of their daughters are saved from Sedom.

4th Section: Lot’s wife looks back upon the destruction of Sedom and dies, and Lot and his two daughters escape into the mountains. Lot’s daughters conspire to rebuild humankind, and taking advantage of Lot’s drunkenness, they become pregnant from Lot resulting in the birth of Ammon and Moav. Avraham encounters Avimelech after which Sarah gives birth to Yitzhak in the year 2048.

5th Section: Yishmael and Hagar are forced out of Avraham’s home, and an angel reassures Hagar of Yishmael’s destiny.

6th Section: Avimelech and his general Phichol resolve their conflict with Avraham over water rights, and they “sign” a covenant of peace.

7th Section: In the year 2085, when Avraham was 137 and Yitzchak was 37, Avraham is commanded to sacrifice Yitzchak. This amazing story heralds the end of Avraham and Sarah’s era, and the beginning of Yitzhak and Rivkah’s era.

Haftara: Kings 2; Chapter 4 Verses 1 – 37

Haftara Summary: In this week's Torah reading, G‑d promises a child to Avraham and Sarah, despite childless Sarah's advanced age. This week's haftarah describes a similar incident that occurred many years later, the prophet Elisha assuring an elderly childless woman that she will bear a child.

The haftarah discusses two miracles performed by the prophet Elisha. The first miracle involved a widow who was heavily in debt, and her creditors were threatening to take her two sons as slaves to satisfy the debt. When the prophet asked her what she had in her home, the widow responded that she had nothing but a vial of oil. Elisha told her to gather as many empty containers as possible borrowing from neighbors and friends as well. She should then pour oil from her vial into the empty containers. She did as commanded, and miraculously the oil continued to flow until the last empty jug was filled. The woman sold the oil for a handsome profit, and had enough money to repay her debts and live comfortably.

The second miracle: Elisha would often pass by the city of Shunam, where he would dine and rest at the home of a certain hospitable couple. This couple even made a special addition to their home, a guest room designated for Elisha's use. When the prophet learned that the couple was childless, he blessed the woman that she should give birth to a child in exactly one year's time. And indeed, one year later a son was born to the aged couple.

A few years later the son complained of a headache and died shortly thereafter. The Shunamit woman laid the lifeless body on the bed in Elisha's designated room, and quickly summoned the prophet. Elisha hurried to the woman's home and miraculously brought the boy back to life.

Parashat Lech Lecha Summary; Genesis; Chapter 12 Verse 1 - Chapter 17 Verse 27

General Overview: Avram and Sarai travel to Canaan. Due to a famine in the land they temporarily relocate to Egypt, where Pharaoh unsuccessfully attempts to keep Sarai as a wife. They return to Canaan with great wealth and Avram parts with his nephew Lot. Avram defeats the armies of the four kings who had taken his nephew Lot hostage. G‑d seals a pact with Avram, bestowing the lands of Canaan to his descendants. Childless Avram marries Hagar and she gives birth to Yishmael. G‑d changes Avram's name to Avraham, and Sarai becomes Sarah. Abraham is circumcised at the age of 99.

1st Section: Avram is instructed to leave Charan and travel 400 miles to the Land of Canaan. (Charan was 600 miles from Ur Casdim). Upon arriving, they are forced to leave Canaan, due to a local famine, and travel to Egypt in search of food.

2nd Section: Avram plans for his encounter with the amorality of Egypt. His and Sarai’s confrontation with Pharaoh is detailed. Avram and Sarai return home.

3rd Section: Avram separates from his nephew / brother-in-law Lot, due to Lot’s defection from the teachings of Avram. Hashem reassures Avram that he will have children, “like the dust of the earth”, who will inherit the Land and carry on his work.

4th Section: Avram is forced to rescue Lot from captivity. In so doing, he adjusts the balance of power in Canaan and is recognized by the other political leaders for his military and moral strength. His encounter with Malki Tzedek (Shem) is in stark contrast to his confrontation with the King of Sodom.

5th Section: Hashem again reassures Avram that he will have genetic children (not just students) who would be as numerous as the stars in the sky.

6th Section: The monumental “Covenant Between the Halves” takes place during which the next 430 years of Jewish history is revealed. Avram is 70 years old. Sarai instructs Avram to marry Hagar. The story of her conflict with Sarai, her encounter with an angel, and the birth of Yishmael in 2034 is told. Following the birth of Yishmael, Avram’s name is changed to Avraham.

7th Section: Avraham is presented with the Mitzvah (commandment) of Circumcision (Brit Milah). Sarai’s name is changed to Sarah, and Hashem assures Avraham he and Sarah will have a son called Yitzchak. It is the year 2047 and Avraham circumcises himself (at the age of 99), Yishmael (at the age of 13), and his entire household.

Haftara: Isaiah; Chapter 40 Verse 27 – Chapter 41 Verse 16

The haftara for this week discusses Avraham's journey to the land of Canaan at G‑d's behest, and touches upon Avraham's miraculous battle against the four kings, both of which are described in this week's Torah reading.

The prophet Isaiah addresses Israel's complaint: ""My way [of serving G‑d] has been ignored by the Lord, and from my G‑d, my judgment passes [unrewarded]."

Isaiah reminds Israel of the Creator's greatness. The time will come when "He will give the tired strength, and to him who has no strength, He will increase strength. Youths shall become tired and weary, and young men shall stumble, but those who put their hope in the Lord shall renew [their] vigor, they shall raise wings as eagles; they shall run and not weary, they shall walk and not tire." Nevertheless, "there is no comprehension of His wisdom," and as such, at times we cannot understand why He chooses to delay the reward of the righteous.

The haftara then turns its attention to the idolatrous nations of the world. Isaiah reminds them of Avraham's greatness, how after arriving in Canaan he pursued and defeated four mighty kings. "The islands saw and feared; the ends of the earth quaked." Nevertheless, the nations who witnessed these miracles did not abandon their ways. "The [idol] craftsman strengthened the smith, the one who smoothens [the idol] with the hammer strengthened the one who wields the sledgehammer; the one who glues its coating says, "It is good," and he strengthened it with nails that it should not move..."

G‑d promises the Jewish nation to reward them for their loyalty to G‑d. "Do not fear for I am with you; be not discouraged for I am your G‑d. . . Behold all those incensed against you shall be ashamed and confounded; those who quarreled with you shall be as naught and be lost."


Parashat Noach Summary; Genesis; Chapter 6 Verse 9 – Chapter 11 Verse 32

Parashat Noach Summary; Genesis; Chapter 6 Verse 9 – Chapter 11 Verse 32

General Overview: In this week's Torah reading, Noach and his family, along with at least one pair of each living creature, survive the Flood by taking refuge in an Ark. The erection of the Tower of Babel angers G‑d, and leads to the dispersal of Noach’s descendants. Abraham and Sarah are born.

1st Section: Noach, a righteous man, is introduced in contrast to a generation that “has perverted its ways”. G-d instructs him to build, and outfit the Ark.

2nd Section: Noach is told to enter the Ark along with all the animals. The flood began on the 17th of the month of Cheshvan in the year 1656 (since the birth of Adam) – which corresponds to October 27th 2106 b.c.e.

3rd Section: For 40 days and nights the waters increased, destroying all living things. The water raged upon the surface of the earth for 150 days, and then diminished for the next 150. The ark rested upon Mt. Ararat on the 17th of Nissan (May 23rd). Noach sends out the Raven and then the Dove, and on the 27th of Cheshvan 27 (October 27), exactly 1 solar year after the flood began, the earth was dry.

4th Section: Noach and his family exit the ark, and offer sacrifices to G-d. They are commanded to keep the 7 Noachide laws.

5th Section: G-d promises to never again destroy the world and designates the rainbow as the symbol of that covenant.

6th Section: The story of Noach, the vineyard, and the subsequent blessings and curses is related. The descendants of Cham, Yefet, and Canaan are listed.

7th Section: The story of the Tower of Babel in 1996 (since the birth of Adam) and Nimrod’s world dominance is told. The 10 generations of Shem, culminating in the introduction of Avram (later to be known as Avraham) and Sarai (later to be known as Sarah), are listed. The year is 2023. Note that Avram was 48 years old when the Tower of Babel took place and he was 56 years old when Noach died.

Special Maftir: This Shabbat is actually Shabbat Rosh Chodesh, and therefore after the seven sections of this week’s Parasha are read, we read the special Torah portion that is read on Rosh Chodesh (Numbers; Chapter 28 Verses 9-15).

Haftara: Isaiah; Chapter 54:1 – 55:5

Haftara Summary: This Shabbat we read about Israel in the aftermath of the destruction of the Temple as afflicted, barren, and inconsolable. The Navi assures the people that Hashem’s kindness and love for them is ever present, protecting, and sustaining. This is the same Haftorah as Parshat Ki Tetzei. (the 4th Haftara of Consolation)

Verse 54:9 refers to the destruction of Jerusalem as “…this is like the waters of Noach to me…” The Navi lets us know that destruction occurs when Hashem’s kindness and protection is removed from the world and from Israel. “For a brief moment I forsook you…” (54:7) “…for a moment I hid my face from you…” (54:8)

The Navi concludes with the reassurance that Hashem remembers His covenant with the world and the Chosen People. Consequences are the result of Hashem’s presence being more or less manifest in society. The degree to which we reveal Hashem’s influence in our lives is the degree to which His protection and supervision is realized. Our job is to reveal Hashem through doing His commandments and learning His Torah.

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Parashat Bereshit Summary; Genesis; Chapter 1 Verse 1 – Chapter 6 Verse 8

General Overview: This week we start with the first portion of the entire Torah, Bereshit. G‑d creates the world in six days and rests on the seventh. Adam and Chava eat from the Tree of Knowledge and are expelled from the Garden of Eden. Cain slays Abel and is punished accordingly. Enumeration of the ten generations between Adam and Noah, the birth of Noach, and the degeneration of mankind.

1st Section: The story of creation of the world in six days. On the first day G‑d made darkness and light. On the second day He formed the heavens, dividing the "upper waters" from the "lower waters." On the third day He set the boundaries of land and sea and called forth trees and greenery from the earth. On the fourth day He fixed the position of the sun, moon and stars. On the fifth day fish, birds and reptiles were created. On the sixth day land-animals and then the human being, Adam were created. G‑d ceased work on the seventh day, and sanctified it as a day of rest.

2nd Section: Discusses the events of the sixth day of creation in greater detail. After Adam was formed from the earth, G‑d placed him in a garden just east of Eden. G‑d permitted Adam to eat from any tree in the garden, with the exception of the Tree of Knowledge. Adam named all the animals and birds, and G‑d decided that Adam needed a mate.

3rd Section: G‑d caused Adam to fall into a deep slumber and formed a woman, Eve, from one of his sides. Adam was delighted with his new mate. The serpent, at the time the wisest of all animals, sweet-talked Eve into eating from the fruit of the forbidden Tree of Knowledge. Eve shared the fruit with Adam, and imbued with a new sense of knowledge and awareness, they were ashamed of their nakedness and clothed themselves.

4th Section: Adam and Eve were then expelled from the Garden of Eden. Eve gave birth to two sons, Cain and Abel. When Abel's offering to G‑d was accepted, while Cain's was rejected, Cain murdered his brother in a jealous rage. G‑d punished Cain, designating him to be a lifelong wanderer, but postponing his ultimate punishment for seven generations.

5th Section: The sixth generation descendent of Cain was Lemech, who fathered several children who were seventh generation descendants of Cain.

6th Section: Lemech accidentally killed his great-great-great-great-grandfather Cain in a hunting accident; the blood of Abel was finally avenged. Adam and Eve gave birth to a third son, Seth. This section then chronicles the first seven generations of mankind, from Adam to the righteous Enoch.

7th Section: The next three generations are chronicled in this section, concluding with Noah, the tenth generation from Adam. At this point in time, the degeneration of man’s relationship with Hashem and wickedness and immorality reached such proportions that G‑d regretted creating man. G‑d gave the world 120 years to clean up their act or be destroyed. Noach, on the other hand, was an exception. He was righteous and found favor in G‑d's eyes.

Haftara: Isaiah; Chapter 42 Verse 5 – Chapter 43 Verse 10

Haftara Summary: The haftarah of this week's reading opens with a statement by "the Almighty G‑d, who created the heavens and stretched them out, who laid out the earth and made grow from it." This echoes the Torah portion's recounting of the creation of the world in six days.

G‑d speaks to the prophet Isaiah, reminding him of his life's purpose and duty, namely that of arousing the Jewish people to return to being a light unto the nations, "To open blind eyes, to bring prisoners out of a dungeon; those who sit in darkness out of a prison."

The prophecy continues with a discussion regarding the Final Redemption, and the song that all of creation will sing to G‑d on that day. G‑d promises to punish all the nations that have persecuted Israel while they were exiled. The prophet also rebukes Israel for their errant ways, but assures them that they will return to the correct path and will be redeemed.

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Parashat Ha’azinu: Deuteronomy; Chapter 32 Verses 1 – 52

1st Section: Moshe begins by describing the presence of Hashem in nature as being as evident as the rain or dew that nourish the fields and gardens. G-d is entirely just, always good, always compassionate and forgiving. Therefore, all destruction and negativity must be ascribed directly to the ill-fated decisions and actions of His children.

2nd Section: The Jew must always remember that he was chosen from among all other nations to be nurtured by the direct ministrations of the Creator. We were born in a “desolate, howling, wasteland” and protected till we were able to assume responsibility for our unique relationship with the Creator of heaven and earth.

3rd Section: Unfortunately, humankind’s tendency is to forget the degree of their dependency upon Hashem and to create the illusion of self-sufficiency and independence. “Yeshurun thus became fat and rebelled…”

4th Section: We will then be punished with exile and persecution. Chased from our land and sold into slavery, the Chosen People will experience what it means to be independent of Hashem’s direct protection and benevolence.

5th Section: However, the other nations will fail in the very same manner that we did. They will assume that their ability to enslave the Chosen People and ravage Israel is proof of G-d’s impotence and their own prowess and strength. Therefore, they will be punished and destroyed and the Chosen People will again recognize Hashem’s primacy and control.

6th Section: Moshe’s song ends with the Jewish people singing forth their acceptance and understanding of divine purpose and justice.

7th Section: Moshe presents the entire “song” to the nation and reemphasizes that the condition for keeping the Land is adherence to Torah and serving Hashem.

Haftara: Shmuel 2; Chapter 22 Verses 1 – 51

Haftara Summary: This Haftara is always read between Yom Kippur and Sukkot. It is also read on the 7th day of Pesach and is found in a modified form in Psalm 18.

King David is singing the praises of Hashem. He has lived a turbulent yet gifted life, and he is giving thanksgiving to Hashem for his numerous victories and successes. In many respects it reflects the same sense of Hashem’s complete control as in Parshat Ha’azinu.

King David gazes back upon the events of his life with a clarity of vision and understanding. He describes Hashem as his “Rock, Fortress, and Deliverer”. (22:2) David recognizes that he too has merited to fulfill one of G-d’s promises, no less important than bringing the Children of Israel to the borders of the land of Israel. He has given birth to the Davidic line that assures the building of the Temple and the coming of Mashiach.

In more ways than can possibly be counted, all of history, from the beginning of time till that moment, conspired to effect redemption for the world. Through the divine power of David’s song, Hashem is given total credit for every turn and twist of destiny. His every trial and tribulation equals the sum total of Hashem’s constant love and protection. “As for G-d, His way is perfect… He is a shield for all who trust in Him.” (22:31)

The magnificence of David’s song reaches across the millennium to inspire and encourage all of us to recognize Hashem’s love and protection. The final words are familiar because they were incorporated into the conclusion of the Birkat Hamazon.

This Parasha and Haftara perfectly reflect the transition from Yom Kippur to Sukkot. The climax of Yom Kippur is the end of Neilah when we publicly proclaim the absolute mastery of G-d over all human and natural affairs. The term “Hashem” reflects upon the G-d of mercy who is intimately involved in the lives of humanity. The term “Elokim” reflects upon the G-d of justice who maintains the inviolable laws of nature. At the conclusion of Yom Kippur we have reached, if only for a moment, the understanding that the G-d of mercy and justice, the G-d of nature and mankind are one and the same. We are able to accept that the entire universe works in concert with Hashem in responding to man’s actions. Whatever the outcome, Hashem’s purpose is positive and beneficial for both the present and all future generations.

Although this is difficult to accept given the imposed limitations of mortality, we exit from that singular moment of awareness at the end of Yom Kippur and launch ourselves into a two week period of joyous and symbolic service. “And you should rejoice in your holiday,” is a commandment unique to this holiday period. We are to revel in the awareness of our dependency upon Hashem. We are to rejoice in the acceptance of G-d’s goodness.

Both Moshe in Ha’azinu, and David in the Haftara, declare their acceptance of G-d’s justice as the ultimate expression of mercy and compassion. We now act out our acceptance by eating and sleeping in a temporary dwelling reminiscent of the 40 years of total dependency in the Sinai Desert. With the shaking of the Lulav, we bind together the symbolic elements of every individual Jew, as well as the totality of the Jewish people, in a communal acknowledgment of Hashem’s mastery over all things.

This concept of acceptance is the single greatest challenge we have in our relationship with the Creator. It is expected that we will struggle with the consequences of divine justice from year to year. Yet, as believers in the reality of “Elokim”, we posture and behave as if we are understanding as well as accepting of G-d’s justice. We too wish to joyously proclaim every day, not just at the end of Yom Kippur, “Shema Yisroel…” “Hear Israel…” the two manifestations of G-d’s reality, Elokim – the G-d of Justice and Hashem – the G-d of Mercy, are really One.

Parashat Vayelech: Deuteronomy; Chapter 31 Verses 1 – 30

Parashat Vayelech: Deuteronomy; Chapter 31 Verses 1 – 30

It’s the 7th day of Adar, 2488, the last day of Moshe’s life. Exactly 120 years earlier the world was graced with the birth of a child who brought redemption to his people and the light of Torah to the world. He became a prophet of unparalleled greatness who led his nation through a miraculous 40 year journey to the edge of the promised land.

Trials and tribulations, rebellions and conspiracies, disillusionment and questions were his lot in life. Yet, Moshe never gave up. He nurtured the Jews “like a mother cares for her child”. He confronted man and G-d in protecting his charges, and succeeded in bringing the people, both physically and spiritually intact, to the fulfillment of a 500 year old promise. Now he had to put his affairs in order, finish his work, and insure an unquestioned transition of leadership to his student Yehoshua. This is the focus of Parashat Vayelech.

1st & 2nd Sections: Moshe emphasized Hashem’s continued presence and protection, even though, Moshe himself would not be with them any longer. Ever since assuming the leadership of Israel, Moshe had the conflicting job of fostering the nations dependency upon Hashem while de-emphasizing their dependency upon him as a leader and provider. Now, as he prepared his final good-bye, it was clear that by day’s end, with Moshe’s death, the nation would have no other choice but to reassess their dependency on Moshe and direct their attention to Hashem.

However, this was far more complex than it seemed. True, Moshe’s death would be a definitive “cutting of the apron strings”; but, living in the Land by the laws of nature rather than miracles would de-emphasize G-d’s overt role in all aspects of their lives.

3rd & 4th Sections: By writing the entire text of the Torah, entrusting it into the care of the Kohanim, and explaining the unique mitzvah of Hakhel, Moshe hoped that the people would retain the perspective of their dependency upon Hashem. The Kohanim represented the continued presence of “G-d in the midst of the camp”. As teachers and role models, they kept an otherwise dispersed and decentralized nation focused on their national and individual missions.

Once every 7 years, the entire nation gathered in the Bet Hamikdash in a recreation of the giving of the Torah. This national expression of devotion would serve as an essential reminder that adherence to the Torah is the reason why the nation occupied and retained the Land.

5th, 6th & 7th Sections: Moshe and Yehoshua were summoned to the Ohel Moed and told the harsh future of their charges. In spite of all the warnings, the people would sin and loose sight of their dependency upon Hashem. They would be punished, and instead of accepting responsibility for the consequences that their neglect of G-d’s commandments caused, they would have the chutzpah to blame G-d’s absence and neglect for the calamities and disasters that had befallen them.(31:17) It would then be the very words of this “Song” which would testify to the reality of their defection from Hashem and the inevitable consequences which occurred, as forewarned in this Torah.

Yehoshua was encouraged to be strong and courageous and lead the nation with the same devotion that Moshe had. The Torah, written by Moshe himself, was then placed in the Ark as proof of the conditions by which the Jewish.

Haftara: Hosea; Chapter 14 Verses 2 – 10, and Micha; Chapter 7 Verses 18 – 20

Haftara Summary: The Shabbat between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur is known as Shabbat Teshuva or "Shabbat of Return (Repentance)." The name is a reference to the opening words of the week's haftara, "Shuva Israel — Return O Israel." This haftara is read in honor of the Ten Days of Repentance, the days between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.

The prophet Hosea exhorts the Jewish people to "Return, O Israel, to the L-rd your G‑d," encouraging them to repent sincerely and ask for G‑d's forgiveness. Hosea urges the Jews to put their trust in G‑d, not in Assyria, powerful horses or idols. At that point, G‑d promises to remove His anger from Israel, "I will be like dew to Israel, they shall blossom like a rose." The prophet then goes on to foretell the return of the exiles and the cessation of idol-worship amongst the people.

The haftorah concludes with a brief portion from the Book of Micah, which describes G‑d's kindness in forgiving the sins of His people. "He does not maintain His anger forever, for He is a lover of kindness. He will have mercy on us, He will grasp our iniquities and cast all our sins into the depths of the sea." Micah concludes with an enjoinder to G‑d to remember the pacts He made with the Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

Parashat Nitzavim; Deuteronomy; Chapter 29 Verse 9 – Chapter 30 Verse 20

Parashat Nitzavim: Deuteronomy; Chapter 29 Verse 9 – Chapter 30 Verse 20

It’s about time we stopped making excuses and took responsibility for who and what we are. It’s long overdue. Here we are at the threshold of a new-year and it’s all about being honest with ourselves. The degree of our commitment to Torah and Mitzvot will be in direct proportion to how many excuses we make for ourselves in avoiding commitment. The more the excuses, the less the commitment. As Moshe continued his final discourse, he confronted the primary excuses we all use in avoiding commitment and responsibility.

1st & 2nd Sections: Moshe presented the entire nation with the basis for our covenant with G-d. Starting with the promise to the forefathers and stretching across 500 years of history, our relationship with G-d had been substantiated through miracle after miracle. Yet, future generations might deny their personal obligation to continue the relationship and its attendant responsibilities. Therefore; Moshe made it absolutely clear that each generation is obligated to educate their children and train them to accept the covenant with G-d. Subsequent generation should not be able to excuse their responsibilities for Torah and Mitzvot due to ignorance.

3rd Section: The next excuse Moshe confronted was the modernization of Torah. In every generation there are those who see Torah as archaic and outdated. “Only by grafting new ideas and practices to the stale practices of Torah will Judaism continue to exist and flourish.” This excuse for changing Torah’s eternal truths will result in the compromise of Torah observance, our land, and our people.

4th & 5th Sections: As history will tragically prove, Moshe’s warnings would be ignored. Subsequent generations would wonder about the destruction and desolation and, in their search for answers, return to the uncompromised truths and practices of their forefathers.

6th Section: As a generation of Baalei Teshuva find their way back, many will be overwhelmed by the seemingly inaccessibility of Torah knowledge. Moshe reassures us that Torah is accessible to all those who truly desire it. Ignorance and a lack of opportunity for learning should never be an excuse.

7th Section: Finally, Moshe presented the bottom line. Endowed with free will we must choose properly. In the end, we are responsible for what happens.

Haftara: Isiah; Chapter 61 Verse 10 – Chapter 63 Verse 9

Haftara Summary: This week's haftara is the 7th and final Haftara of Consolation. Coming before Rosh Hashana, this selection perfectly focuses us on the intended purpose of the High Holy Days.

We are dependent upon Hashem. He is the source of our protection, well being, and purpose. His constant love and attention is evident in the miracle of our survival and the strength of our limited numbers. As the Navi prepared the hope which allows us to place tragedy in perspective, we prepare ourselves to acknowledge Hashem’s providence through prayer and justice. There will soon come a time when we, as the Chosen People, will embrace the gift of G-d’s special attention. At that time the “…nations will see your righteousness and all the kings your glory…”

Glory and honor are the byproducts of devotion and commitment. Our responsibility in the coming days is to “…recount G-d’s mercies and praises…” Our goal is to acknowledge G-d and for G-d to proclaim “…Surely they are my people… (63:8)

Parashat Ki Tavo; Deuteronomy; Chapter 26 Verse 1 – Chapter 29 Verse 8

General Overview: Following the last two Torah portions that focused on Justice and the value of individual rights, Moshe directed the nation’s attention to the realities of what it meant to live in the Land of Israel.

Our behaviors, as well as natural law, are subject to the word of G-d and interface with each other in the most intimate example of cause and effect. As the Chosen People, our lifestyle should manifest the ever-present mastery of the Creator over mankind and the realization of the connection between our adherence of Mitzvot and the laws of nature. This is most apparent in the Land of Israel. As Moshe told the Jewish people in Parshat Ekev, (11:12) “It is therefore a land constantly under Hashem’s scrutiny…” As clearly as the rain and dew fall, the land reflects G-d’s presence. Keeping the Mitzvot of the Torah proclaims in word and deed G-d’s mastery over man and results in nature serving man as her accepted master. By ignoring or opposing the Torah we deny G-d’s mastery over man; and in turn, nature opposes man’s attempts at mastery over the natural world.

During the 40 years of the desert, the Jews were being prepared to accept the reality of Hashem’s mastery and the responsibility of keeping His Mitzvot. Now, in Parshat Ki Tavo, as they were poised to cross the Jordan river and assume their intended place as “… highest of all the nations on earth.” (28:1) Moshe commanded a number of declarations and ceremonies. These ceremonies would underscore the cause and effect relationship that exists between adherence to Torah, the laws of nature, and the divine responsiveness of the land.

1st & 2nd Sections: The Torah portion begins with the Mitzvot of the first fruits and the completion of the Tithing cycles. Both are accompanied by special declarations of Hashem’s mastery over the land, and man’s responsibility to keep the commandments of Hashem.

3rd, 4th & 5th Sections: Moshe presents a statement of allegiance between Hashem and His People. We are to keep the Torah and Hashem guarantees us praise, fame and glory as the “highest of all the nations”. (26:19) Upon crossing the Jordan river, the Nation will publicly declare its acceptance of Hashem’s covenant by: inscribing the Torah upon twelve stones; erecting them as a monument; and the ceremony of blessings and curses that is to take place between the opposing mountains, Grizim and Eval.

6th Section: Commonly known as the Tochecha, the admonitions and punishments. It describes the consequences that will befall the Jewish people if they ignore Hashem’s Torah and his providence. The custom is for the Reader to read this section more quickly and quietly than the rest of the Parasha.

7th Section: The Torah portion concludes with the beginning of Moshe’s final discourse. He starts by recounting the miraculous nature of the past 40 years and its clear indication of Hashem’s protection, in the present, past and future.

Haftara: Isaiah; Chapter 60 Verse 1 – 22

Haftara Summary: This week's haftorah is the sixth of a series of seven "Haftarot of Consolation." These seven Haftarot commence on the Shabbat following Tisha b'Av and continue until Rosh Hashanah.

In glowing terms the prophet recounts descriptions of what will unfold during the Redemption. Beginning with the resurrection of the dead and the ingathering of the exiles, continuing with the joy and abundance the Jewish people will then experience, as well as the gifts that will be brought to G‑d from all of the nations of the world.

Finally, the Jewish nation will no longer be despised and derided, there will no longer be violence nor mourning, and G‑d will shine His everlasting light on His people.

Parashat Ki Tetze; Deuteronomy; Chapter 21 Verse 10 – Chapter 25 Verse 19

General Overview: This week's Torah portion contains 74 commandments, more mitzvot than any other Torah portion. Some of the commandments discussed are: the law of the rebellious son, the obligation to bury the dead without undue delay, the requirement to return a found object, the prohibition against causing pain to any living creature, the prohibition against prostitution, the laws of marriage and divorce, the procedure of the Levirate marriage, and the obligation to eradicate the memory of Amalek.

1st Section: In an illuminating sequence of emotional and legal circumstances, Moshe forewarned us of the moral and familial dangers of warfare. A soldier brings home a non-Jewish female captive. Disregarding rational and obvious differences, he marries her, has his first son with her, and eventually resents the discord he has fostered upon himself, his “captive wife”, and his extended family. Attempting to deny his responsibility in the “resentment turned to hatred” breaking apart his family, he attempts to deny his firstborn son’s rights. This is illegal.

This can Produce the “Rebellious Son”; a child who does not value the private rights of person or property and will eventually be executed for his crimes against society. It’s a tragedy that begs us to consider the long-term consequences of our actions before giving legal license to the desire and lust within each of us.

2nd Section: The laws regarding: hanging and burial; returning lost articles; the fallen animal; transvestitism; and the birds nest are detailed.

3rd Section: The laws regarding: guard rails; mixed agriculture; forbidden combinations; Tzitzit; the defamed wife; if the accusations against the wife are true; the penalty for adultery; the rape of a betrothed or unmarried girl; the prohibition against marrying a father’s wife; the Mamzer; and the prohibition against marrying an Ammonite or Moabite are detailed.

4th Section: The laws regarding: marriage to Edomites or Egyptians; the sanctity of the army camp; sheltering runaway slaves; prostitution; deducted interest; and keeping vows are commanded.

5th & 6th Sections: The laws regarding: workers eating while they harvest; divorce and remarriage; military exemptions for a new husband; taking a millstone as security for a loan; the punishment for kidnapping; leprosy; general laws regarding security for loans, are detailed.

7th Section: The laws regarding paying wages on time; the testimony of close relatives; concern for the widowed and orphaned; forgotten sheaves of grain; leftover fruit from the harvest; Malkut – flogging; the childless sister-in-law; the assailant and the wife who comes to the rescue; honest weights and measures; and remembering Amalek are commanded.

Haftara: Isaiah; Chapter 54 Verse 1 – 10)

Haftara Summary: This week's haftarah is the fifth of a series of seven "Haftarot of Consolation." These seven haftarot commence on the Shabbat following Tisha B’Av and continue until Rosh Hashanah.

Forsaken Jerusalem is likened to a barren woman devoid of children. G‑d enjoins her to rejoice, for the time will soon come when the Jewish nation will return and proliferate, repopulating Israel's once desolate cities. The prophet assures the Jewish people that G‑d has not forsaken them. Although He has momentarily hidden His countenance from them, He will gather them from their exiles with great mercy. The Haftorah compares the final Redemption to the pact G‑d made with Noah. Just as G‑d promised to never bring a flood over the entire earth, so too He will never again be angry at the Jewish people.

"For the mountains may move and the hills might collapse, but My kindness shall not depart from you, neither shall the covenant of My peace collapse."

Parashat Shoftim; Deuteronomy; Chapter 16 Verse 18 – Chapter 21 Verse 9

General Overview: This week the Torah addresses fundamental issues pertaining to the leadership of the Jewish people. It begins with a discussion regarding judges, and later gives rules pertaining to kings, prophets and kohanim (priests). Many commandments are introduced in this week’s reading, including: appointing judges, the obligation to follow rabbinic law and the words of the prophets, the obligations of a king, the punishment for perjury, the laws of war, and the procedure for dealing with unsolved murders.

1st & 2nd Sections: Moshe details the most important characteristics of a Judge: the ability to remain objective and the strength to refuse bribery. The singular focus of the Shofet (Judge) must be to carry out the will of G-d as detailed in the Halacha. Nothing must deter him in carrying out his mission of justice.

Idolatrous practices must be eradicated and punished. Idol worship represents the greatest perversion of justice by replacing divine justice with human failings and desires.

The Sanhedrin (The Great Assembly) is our direct link with Divine intent, and as stated in Verse 17:11, we view the rulings and interpretations of the Supreme Court as G-dly directives.

Our Monarch must be selected for his unyielding commitment to G-d, Torah, and the people. This is why he must write his own Sefer Torah and carry it with him at all times. He must be first and foremost a Shofet, a Judge.

3rd & 4th Sections: Moshe again addressed the place of the tribe of Levi, reemphasizing the care and attention due to them by the rest of the nation. They are our teachers. Without their instruction we will neither understand or be able to properly apply justice.

5th Section: For justice to exist, it must be accepted as a Divine ruling. Only G-d’s justice can be trusted to take into account all variables and possibilities. Moshe instructed his nation regarding the true Navi – prophet and the false prophet. No other forms of divination can be used to ascertain G-d’s justice, and all false prophets and methods of divination must be destroyed. The value of human life is determined by our system of justice, and Moshe reviewed the laws of the unintentional killing in contrast with the intentional murder.

6th & 7th Sections: The end of the Torah Portion discusses both proper and false witnesses, as well as the Torah’s approach to warfare. It may be that the judicial quality of a nation can be ultimately assessed by its behavior during war, more so than during times of peace.

The Parasha concludes with the unique mitzvah of the Eglah Arufa (the decapitated calf) and the process through which the community takes responsibility for the unsolved murders. This ceremony, which reflects the priceless value of life, might be the most eloquent expression of G-d’s judicial system.

Parashat Re'eh; Deuteronomy; Chapter 11 Verse 26 – Chapter 16 Verse 17

Parashat Re’eh; Deuteronomy; Chapter 11 Verse 26 – Chapter 16 Verse 17


General Overview: In this week's reading, Re'eh, Moshe continues addressing the Jewish people just before he passes away; just before the Jewish people cross the Jordan River and enter the land of Israel. Moshe commands the Jewish people to proclaim certain blessings and curses on Mount Grizzim and Mount Eval after they enter the land of Israel. He directs them to destroy all vestiges of idolatry from the Promised Land. They must then designate a city where the Divine presence will dwell in the Holy Temple, and they are forbidden from offering sacrifices elsewhere. Other topics discussed in this portion are: tithes, false prophets, the wayward city, tattoos, kashrut, the Sabbatical Year, charity, and the festivals.

1st & 2nd Sections: Moshe instructs the Chosen People to eradicate any remnant of idolatry and strengthen all aspects of service to G-d. All offerings must be brought to the “Chosen” place, the Temple, so that worship is an act of humility and selflessness, rather than a self-indulging “need”. An even greater danger to our uniqueness is the innate desire to compromise and assimilate Torah values with other forms of worship.

3rd & 4th Sections: Moshe forewarned the Jews against incorporating any pagan practices, and against the false prophet, idolatrous missionaries, and the Ir Hanidachat – the Apostate City. These must be destroyed along with their material belongings. When using the world in accordance with the wishes of the Creator, we declare the existence of a Creator who has a divine purpose for creating the material world. When we misuse the physical in the service of “gods who are not G-d”, we negate the Creator’s purpose for creating the universe. Therefore, they and all their belongings must be destroyed.

5th, 6th & 7th Sections: The remainder of the Parasha, details those Mitzvot that set us apart from all other nations: Kashrus; Ma’asrot – Tithes; the Shemitah – sabbatical year; the laws regarding lending money; the Eved Ivri – a Jew who is a slave; the consecration of the first born animal, and a review of the main Yomim Tovim – holidays: Pesach, Shavout, and Succot.

Rabbi S.R. Hirsch points out that Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur are not reviewed in the book of Deuteronomy because there were no changes in the practices of those holidays when living in the desert or living in the land of Israel.

Haftara: Isaiah; Chapter 54 Verse 11 – Chapter 55 Verse 5

Haftara Summary: This week's haftara is the third of a series of seven "haftarot of Consolation." These seven haftarot commence on the Shabbat following Tisha b'Av and continue until Rosh Hashanah.

G‑d addresses the "afflicted and storm-tossed" Jerusalem "who has not been comforted," assuring her that she, and her people, will be restored to full glory. The foundation, walls and ground of Jerusalem will be laid with precious stones. Her children will be "disciples of the Lord," and will enjoy abundant peace. Any weapon engineered against her will fail.

The prophet then invites the thirsty to acquire "water," namely those who are thirsty for spirituality should study the quenching words of Torah. He promises the nation an everlasting covenant similar to that made with King David. This is also an allusion to the Messiah, David's descendant, who will be revered by all of the nations of the world.

Parashat Ekev; Deuteronomy; Chapter 7 Verse 12 – Chapter 11 Verse 25

Parashat Ekev; Deuteronomy; Chapter 7 Verse 12 – Chapter 11 Verse 25

General Overview: Moshe continues his pep talk to the Jewish people, cautioning them not to fear the Canaanite armies for G‑d will wage battle for them. He also notifies them that their entry into the Land is not due to their own virtues – Moshe reminds them of their many transgressions to emphasize this point – but rather, it is in the merit of the nation's Forefathers. The commandments of prayer and Grace After Meals are mentioned. The second part of the Shema is also found in this portion.

1st Section: Moshe details the general rewards for following the Torah, and encourages the nation to have complete confidence in Hashem’s protection. Moshe forewarns them of the dangers in being overly confident and commands them in the Mitzvah of Birkat Hamazon, the prayer after meals (8:10).

2nd Section: Moshe warns them regarding the pitfalls of prosperity and idolatry, and exhorts them to remain humble in the face of their guaranteed victories. G-d is the one who deserves the credit!

3rd Section: In order to illustrate his point, Moshe reviews the incident of the Golden Calf. He explains why G-d, being a G-d of Justice, will grant the Jewish people a victory over the inhabitants of Canaan. Not because the Jews are deserving, but because the Seven Nations deserve to be punished for their own evil actions. The actions of the Jewish people during the 40 years, such as the Golden Calf, should have resulted in the Jews’ destruction. It was three factors which kept them alive and well so that they could inherit the land.

Hashem’s promise to Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yaacov.

The Chillul Hashem– desecration of G-d’s name–that would have occurred among the other nations who would question G-d’s ability to protect His nation.

Moshe’s begging for Hashem’s forgiveness.

4th Section: Moshe finishes the story of the Golden Calf by retelling the giving of the Second Tablets.

5th Section: Moshe poses the famous rhetorical question of, “What does G-d want… follow His ways…” and describes other instances of Hashem’s demanding justice.

6th Section: Moshe describes the nature of Eretz Yisroel as demanding and responsive to our following the Torah. The second paragraph of Shema is recorded.

7th Section: Moshe promises the nation total victory if they listen to the commandments and follow the ways of the Hashem.

Haftara: Isaiah; Chapter 49 Verse 14 – Chapter 51 Verse 3

Haftara Summary: This week's haftara is the second of a series of seven "haftarot of Consolation." These seven haftarot commence on the Shabbat following Tisha b'Av and continue until Rosh Hashanah.

The exiled Jewish people express their concern that G‑d has abandoned them. G‑d reassures them that it is not so, comparing His love and mercy for His people to that of a mother for her children, and even greater than that, too.

The prophet Isaiah then touchingly describes the ingathering of the exiles which will occur with the Messiah's arrival and returning to the initial subject matter of this haftara, that of the Jewish people's complaint of being abandoned by G‑d, he reminds them of their rebellious behavior that brought about the exile and suffering. He concludes with encouraging words, reminding us of what had happened to our ancestors, Abraham and Sarah. Just as they were blessed with a child when they had all but given up hope, so too, G‑d will send us the Messiah.

Parashat Vaetchanan; Deuteronomy; Chapter 3 Verse 2 – Chapter 7 Verse 11

Parashat Vaetchanan; Deuteronomy; Chapter 3 Verse 2 – Chapter 7 Verse 11

General Overview: The book of Deuteronomy, Devarim is also called “Mishneh Torah – The Review of the Torah” because it repeats over 100 commandments already mandated in the previous 4 Books. Rabbi S.R. Hirsch explains that of the 100 commandments commanded in this book, more than 70 are new. The repeated commandments focus on areas that will be of greater immediate concern as they encounter the 7 Nations. For example, the prohibition against idol worship. Although already taught, it needed to be reiterated as the Jews would confront the inhabitants of Canaan, who were idolatrous. Those commandments whose application was the same, whether in the desert or in the Land, are not reviewed. In Parshat Vaetchanan Moshe continues his final instructions to the Jewish people.

1st & 2nd Sections: Moshe beseeched Hashem to enter the Land. However, he seemingly blamed the nation when his request was turned down. Moshe explained the foundation of our divine mission, which will be recognized by the other nations. Moshe stressed allegiance to Hashem and the consequences to ourselves and our children if we do not keep the law.

3rd & 4th Sections: Moshe designated the Cities of Refuge, and reviewed the entire experience of Revelation and the receiving of the Ten Commandments.

5th, 6th & 7th Sections: Moshe stressed the reaction of the nation after the giving of the Torah, and forewarned them not deviate from the Torah, either to the right or the to the left. The first paragraph of Shema is recorded. (6:10-15) Moshe warned the people about the dangers of prosperity, and directed them to keep the commandments and remember the Exodus. Moshe forewarned them about the dangers of assimilation and told them to always remember that they are the Chosen People.

Haftara: Isaiah; Chapter 40 Verse 1 – 26

Haftara Summary: This week’s haftarah is the first of a series of seven “haftarot of Consolation.” These seven haftarot commence on the Shabbat following Tisha B’Av and continue until Rosh Hashanah.

This section of Isaiah begins with G‑d’s exhortation to the prophets: “Console, O console My people . . . Announce to Jerusalem that her period of exile has been fulfilled and that her sins have been forgiven.”

Isaiah’s prophecy describes some of the miraculous events that will unfold with the onset of the messianic era, such as the return of the exiles to Jerusalem, the revelation of G‑d’s glory, and the rewards and retribution that will then be meted out.

The prophet then goes on to comfort the people, describing G‑d’s power and might, and reassuring them of His care for His people.

Sun, June 16 2019 13 Sivan 5779